Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Tanks in World War I Free Essays

In 1915 Europe was amidst World War I and was at an impasse brought about by channel fighting. There was a requirement for new and progressive weapons to end the issue. The British found an answer for this issue by designing tanks. We will compose a custom article test on Tanks in World War I or on the other hand any comparable point just for you Request Now The innovation of the tank had various advantages and disadvantages, yet it at last changed fighting. Tanks were worked to navigate through channels. Channels were turning into a strict divider and kept either side from progressing. Tanks were the answer for the dilemma that was the Western Front. The primary model was called Mark I and was tried for the British Army in the September of 1916. Tanks were dynamic and empowered numerous new strategies. They utilized caterpillar tracks which had a less probability of getting adhered because of sinking. Tanks offered insurance against guns and scared German infantry men that were stunned profoundly by the way that they can't obliterate a tank with automatic weapon alone. Tanks were likewise extraordinary for going with infantry to secure them. There were additionally cons that accompanied the utilization of tanks. Tanks were moderate, moving at a pace of four miles for each hour; easygoing human strolling speed. They were precisely temperamental, and separated much of the time. More often than not tanks were hot, numbingly uproarious and by and large awkward for the teams. After the British brought the tank into the war different nations had their own varieties. France propelled their first tank, the Schneider CA1, not long after Britain had presented the. Imprint I. These tanks were equivalent to British tanks in many viewpoints, aside from that they moved quicker by 1 mph. Near the finish of World War I, Germany had their own tank. The A7V, nicknamed â€Å"The Moving Fortress† by the British on account of the state of the frame, was gone into war in 1918 and were in real life for eight months. One hundred vehicles were requested throughout the spring of 1918, yet just 21 were conveyed. The most effective method to refer to Tanks in World War I, Essay models

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Red Bull Target Market Essay Example

Red Bull Target Market Paper Suggestions for Red Bull to Sustain Their Marketing Momentum The showcasing technique of Red Bull can be considered as one of the best one throughout the years. Red Bull has been popular for building a drink brand without depending on broad communications. The focal part in all promoting exercises of Red Bull was â€Å"Word-of mouth†. Plus, Red Bull additionally made â€Å"adult cartoon† promotion, pushed preliminary program, developed a broad system of occasions, supported driving competitors of extraordinary games and marked refrigerated deals units to finish their advertising methodology. Be that as it may, so as to continue the showcasing achievement, other than their customary advertising effort, we feel that Red Bull need to take the accompanying activities: ? Boosting mass-showcasing effort to insert the picture of Red Bull a caffeinated drink-in customers’ minds: in the current unforgiving rivalry advertise, where various brands of caffeinated drinks are accessible, it is difficult for Red Bull to keep their situation as the principal decision in customers’ minds when they need a caffeinated drink if clients don't have opportunity to see the picture of Red Bull normally. In this manner, presently it is the ideal opportunity for them to utilize different devices like announcements, pennant advertisements or banners at the open spots to amplify contact with clients. ?Expanding promoting on the web: as the web is so mainstream now and an ever increasing number of individuals invest a lot of their energy riding the web, Red Bull likewise needs to advance their image through certain exercises on the web like making some outrageous games on the web and publicizing on suitable sites which are very acquainted with understudies and agents in various nations. Enhancing their items: Red Bull should demonstrate their advancement to clients to refresh the picture just as to make passage hindrances against different contenders through item enhancement. We will compose a custom article test on Red Bull Target Market explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom exposition test on Red Bull Target Market explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom exposition test on Red Bull Target Market explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer They can present new sorts of drink with more nutrient in addition to or more flavors however they need to ensure that the new sorts are likewise caffeinated beverages to keep up the connection between the word â€Å"energy† with Red Bull. Making Red Bull grant: because of the way that understudies are considered as a significant part in Red Bull’s target advertise, it is useful for Red Bull to construct their great picture among understudies through allowing three to five grants every year on their image name to the understudies who get phenomenal outcomes in spite of troublesome everyday environments. ?Supporting foundation exercises: Red Bull additionally need to support the cause exercises identifying with supporting individuals to defeat genuine ailments or competitors to recoup after injury. This activity along with the above activity of allowing grants not just assists Red With bulling increase positive deduction from general society yet in addition make a decent connect to the brand name â€Å"Red Bull gives you wings†. In whole, to keep up their promoting force, Red Bull needs to do all the important exercises to reinforce the connection between the word â€Å"energy† and the brand name Red Bull. At that point at whatever point clients consider caffeinated drink they will consider Red Bull.

Thursday, August 13, 2020

The Beauty of Starting a Micro-Business

The Beauty of Starting a Micro-Business In early May, I strapped my hot pink bike panniers on my bike and pedaled away from my little house. The weather was perfect for a short bike ride to the gym. It was seventy degrees, sunny and the birds were singing their tunes. Id barely pedaled two blocks when my phone rang. Typically, I dont stop and answer the phone when Im on my bike. But, my instinct told me to pull over and answer the phone. The phone call was from Logan, my husband, and after exchanging hellos Logan said, Well, I have some holy shit, life changing news  My stomach felt like it dropped to my feet and I said, Ohhh no. You lost your job, didnt you?  Yup. My boss has a job opportunity in Boston and shes taking the research project with her. She offered me a job at the new lab, but I dont think we want to move there. As of September 1st, I wont have a job anymore.  Instead of freaking-out, Logan simply followed up with So, now were free to do what we want again. Maybe its time for us to move back to California? Seven years ago this news would have been disastrous for us because we were living paycheck to paycheck and didnt have a savings account. However, things have changed. Weve paid off our debt, own a very tiny house and have dramatically changed our consumption patterns. Our expenses are relatively low, our house is on wheels, and my job is location independent; all of which give us freedom, flexibility, and the opportunity to embrace change. To Move or Not to Move? Over the next few weeks, we talked about how much we loved Portland, our friends, and our neighbors. But our hearts were telling us to move back home. Weve both been homesick since we moved to Portland and the last seven months havent been easy. My dad was extremely ill and I spent a lot of time traveling to and from California. Luckily my job is mobile. My little writing business gave more than money; it gave me the freedom and time to be there for my dad. As long as I have a computer, pen, journal, and an internet connection, I can write. As a result, I was able to help take care of my dad before he passed away in early June. Unfortunately, Logan didnt have the same opportunity because of his traditional, 9-5 job. He had also missed the Christmas and New Year holidays earlier in the year because of the traditional job. A Sabbatical + a Micro-Business After making a lot of pro/con lists, Logan and I decided to move back to California. Ill continue writing and Logan is going to take a sabbatical from the work world. I have a feeling that the career transition Logan is experiencing will be fruitful, rather than hurtful. Hell have the time to rest, reflect, and figure out what he wants to do next. Change can be stressful and tumultuous, but its also a way to revamp your personal and professional life. For example, Logan wants a career that gives him more flexibility and freedom. After a lot of brainstorming, he decided to start a small business that will help companies prepare for emergencies. Its been two years since I started my smal business and Ive learned a lot. So I offered Logan a few pieces of advice to help him get started: 1. Start a website. This website should be your home base on the Internet. Its a place where people can learn about you and the services you offer. Plus, developing a website is a wonderful exercise to define your business goals, objectives, and the services you want to offer clients. 2. Network and then network more. Connect with your tribe on social networks and take time out to meet your fans and colleagues in person and off-line. 3. Pay attention to the details. What kind of entity is your little business? A sole proprietorship or a corporation? Do you have a business account for expenditures? Pay attention to the details so they can help inform your big decisions and help you focus on daily tasks. Paying attention to the little things will help you treat your business like a business and keep expenses in harmony with income. 4. Develop a product or service to sell. Selling a product or service is the core foundation of any business. Without this component, youll have trouble paying the bills. Its essential to show how a particular product or service will benefit the buyer. 5. Diversify Your Moolah. I generate income through online courses, ebook sales, my book advance and through freelance writing projects. By diversifying my income stream I dont have to rely on one source of cash to pay my monthly bills. I think this is beneficial regardless of your situation because it offers you resiliency and adaptability in the face of layoffs or swings in the market. Parting Words I cant tell you what you should do for a living. But I will say this: prioritize what matters to you. I did this by creating a micro-business that gave me the flexibility to do work I love and to be there for my loved ones too. Tammy Strobel is the author of You Can Buy Happiness (and its Cheap).

Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Big Five Personality Traits And Factor Theories From...

Describe the â€Å"Big Five† personality traits. Trait and Factor Theories from Eysenck, McCrae, and Costa’s: Like Eysenck, McCrae and Costa’s thought that personality â€Å"traits are bipolar and follow a bell-shaped distribution.† Those who take the Big Five personality trait test tend to score in the middle (neither high or low) of the bell curve of each trait, and that only a few people score close to the five basic dimensions, a high, or low to the extremes. (Feist Feist, 2008, p.422) TABLE 14.1- Costa and McCrae’s Five-Factor Model of Personality The â€Å"Big Five† factor model include these five basic dimensions: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism. 1. Open to Experience V Practical a. Openness (High Scores): Imaginative, creative, original, prefers variety, curious, and liberal b. Practical (Low Scores): Down-to-earth, uncreative, conventional, prefers routine, uncurious, and conservative 2. Conscientiousness V Spontaneous: a. Conscientiousness (High Scores): Conscientious, hardworking, well-organized, punctual, ambitious, and persevering b. Spontaneousness (Low Scores): Negligent, lazy, disorganized, late, aimless, and quitting 3. Extraversion V Introversion: a. Extraversion (High Scores): Affectionate, joiner, talkative, fun loving, active, and passionate b. Introversion (Low Scores): Reserved, loner, quiet, sober, passive, and unfeeling 4. Agreeableness V Independence: a.Show MoreRelatedCosta And Mccrae s Five Factor Theory Of Personality And Eysenck s Pen Theory1496 Words   |  6 Pages Both Costa and McCrae’s Five Factor theory of personality and Eysenck’s PEN theory have been the subject of significant research in an effort to better understand human personality. This paper focuses on two opposing theories: Costa and McCrae’s Five Factor model, a lexically-based theory with five factors, and Eysenck’s PEN model, a biologically-based theory with three core traits of personality. Utilizing factor analysis, Raymond Cattell (1946) recognized 16 personality factors (16pf). CattellRead MoreThe Five Factor Model Of Personality1704 Words   |  7 Pagesvariety of models of personality, firstly taking into account Gordon Allport’s model, followed by Raymond Cattell’s 16 trait factor model and Eysenck’s, 3 factor model. Before, critically discussing the five factor model of personality and individual traits, these are made up of the characteristics of an individual which includes their, thoughts and behaviours that make a person unique. Finally this essay will suggest one other factor which might usefully be added to the five factor model to improveRead MoreTrait Theory4213 Words   |  17 PagesTrait theory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 1 of 8 Trait theory From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Trait theory in psychology, is an approach to the study of human personality. Trait theorists are primarily interested in the measurement of traits, which can be defined as habitual patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion.[1] According to this perspective, traits are relatively stable over time, differ across individuals (e.g. some people are outgoing whereas others are shy)Read MoreFive Factor Theory1616 Words   |  7 Pageshuman personality and disorders therein, with the intent to use this model in the remedying of personality disorders and improving general understanding of personality. Currently, a handful of models have risen to prominence, and have thus far stood the test of time. Some models are more generally accepted than others. Support for some models seems to come and go in cycles. One of the more prominent models in contemporary psychology is what is known as the five-factor model of personality. ThisRead MoreFive Dimensions of Personality and Their Correlation with Job Performance2733 Words   |  11 PagesThe accurate definition of personality has been a point of discussion amongst many different philosophers within many different disciplines since the beginning of civilization. Personality can be defined as the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment (Johns , 1996: 75). Personality has a rocky history within the workplace and organization behavior because of measurement problems. There is now a renewed interestRead MoreThe Biological Basis Of Personality Approach1747 Words   |  7 PagesThis essay will give a description of Personality before critically analysing the biological basis of personality approach. The biological basis approach tries to account for the me chanisms between genes and personality by looking at various different brain structures whilst the biochemical approach looks at the impact of hormones and neurotransmitters. The majority of our understanding of personality from a biological perspective focuses on the three main behavioural systems; the reward system,Read MoreRelationship Between Students Personality Traits and Their Academic Achievement4475 Words   |  18 PagesRelationship between Students’ Personality Traits and their Academic Achievement in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan Dr. Safdar Rehman Ghazi Assistant Professor/Director Institute of Education Research UST Bannu (KPK) Mr. Gulap Shahzada Institute of Education Research UST Bannu (KPK) Saif Ullah Institute of Education Research UST Bannu (KPK) Theoretical framework of this study based on Big Five Personality Trait Theory (Cattell’s Eysenck’sRead MoreIndividual Diffferences - How environmental factors affect Personality Intelligence1525 Words   |  7 Pagesin which environmental factors can impact on the development of an individual’s personality and intelligence. The discussion in this essay entails the extent to which environmental factors impact an individual’s development of personality and intelligence. Development can be defined as ‘improvement in function’ which would imply that it occurs with the progression of age. Personality has been found to have a substantial genetic influence however economic and social factors have been found to effectRead MorePersonality Traits2403 Words   |  10 PagesIn psychology, personality traits could be explained from many aspects, and one of them describes personality traits as categorizations of people’s particular characteristics (Burger, 1997) while others hold opposite ideas that personalities are more unique and different for each individual depending on his or her peculiar life experience. The former idea relates itself to nomothetic approach, which is a quantitative approach that studies personalities that people share in common to find out a generalRead MorePersonal ity Theories5586 Words   |  23 PagesPersonality Theories Almost everyday we describe and assess the personalities of the people around us. Whether we realize it or not, these daily musings on how and why people behave as they do are similar to what personality psychologists do. Personality psychology looks at the patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior that make a person unique. Some of the best known theories in psychology are devoted to the subject of personality. Almost everyday we describe and assess the personalities of

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Rape And Sexual Assault On College Campuses - 1824 Words

Emma Sulkowicz, a senior at Columbia University, carried her mattress around her campus, from class to class, all of last year as form of protest against her rapist who was not expelled from school. This story made news all across the country, leaving many wondering how this could possibly happen, and why it continues to happen. This is just one of the highly publicized cases of rape on college campuses, which also illuminates how often time administrators fail to bring justice to the victim. It seems as if of lately that rape and sexual assault on college campuses has become far too normal in our society, meaning that we have almost become numb to them because they happen so frequently. When we hear about a rape on a campus, it is often neither surprising nor shocking to us, which is a definite social, and criminal, problem. The question that must be addressed then is, why do these types of crimes continue to occur, and what factors contribute to this ongoing issue? It may be easy t o point a finger at society as a whole, and say that parents have wrongfully raised their sons to behave in such a way, but there may be even more factors that work together to create a rapist or someone who is likely to commit sexual assault. Nonetheless, this is a huge, relevant, terrifying problem in our society which often leaves young women feeling as if they are not ever safe, not even at the college campus of which they are supposed to be able to call home. This is an ongoing issue thatShow MoreRelatedRape And Sexual Assault On College Campuses919 Words   |  4 PagesAccording to the United States Supreme Court’s U.S Code 920 – Article 120, sexual assault and rape (a form of sexual assault) are legally identified as â€Å"sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual action perpetrated against a person without that person s consent† (H.R. Title 10 - Armed Forces 466). Now, in regards to why these individuals inflict these actions are summed up within the same U.S code in that they may be carried out by â€Å"physical force, coercion, abuse of authority, or against a personRead MoreSexual Assault And Rape Among College Campuses Essay1363 Words   |  6 PagesSexual assault and rape among college campuses has been an ongoing issue across the nation for decades. In the state of Utah, this complex issue will not have a simple solution, but measures can be taken to prevent sexual assault and rape occurring on campuses. Utah Valley University is a campus that is taking considerably impressive measures to combat sexual assault, which will be a basis of this paper. Through university sex education, stricter laws and enforcement, and providing on-campus servicesRead MoreRape And Sexual Assault Is Becoming A Sheer Problem On College Campuses1515 Words   |  7 PagesIn today’s society rape and sexual assault is becoming a sheer problem on college campuses around the United States. It is almost everyday that one hears about a sexual assault or rape case happening at a college, and sometimes its at the college that one attends or ones child attends. With this becoming a world renown problem, it can be a very scary thing for not only the students at college but also for the families of college students. To be more specific when it comes to who is starting to commitRead MoreRape Culture Essay1198 Words   |  5 PagesRape culture is prevalent on all college campuses, and many fail to realize this and what rape culture is. It is in the party scene, athletics, in dorm rooms, and everywhere else around campus. It is the acceptance of sexual jokes, saying â€Å"she was asking for it because of what she was wearing,† not taking sexual assault seriously, and so much more. Rape Culture is an environment in which rape is prevalent and in which sexual violence against women is normalized and excused in the media and popularRead MoreLack Of Rape Kits On College Campuses Essay1598 Words   |  7 Pages Lack of Rape Kits on College Campuses A Senior Project Research Paper Presented to the Faculty of Waiakea High School In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Senior Project Shania M. Rapoza Public Services Academy Capstone Mr. Joel Wagner-Wright August 23, 2016 Shania Rapoza Joel Wagner-Wright PSA Capstone 23 August 2016 Words: 1273 Lack of Rape Kits on College Campuses â€Å"What is the point of having a national DNA database, if the rapist s DNA is never entered into it?† (â€Å"PatternRead MoreSexual Assault On Campus : Opposing Viewpoints Essay1180 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction to Sexual Assault on Campus: Opposing Viewpoints. Sexual Assault on Campus. Ed. Jack Lasky. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2016. Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 17 Oct. 2016. The article introduces sexual assault to readers as a problem that is in line with other forms of violence such as domestic violence, dating violence and stalking. It gives a figure of 19% undergraduate women who have reported a complete or attempted sexual assault while in campusRead MoreAcquaintance Rape And The College Social Scene1595 Words   |  7 PagesAcquaintance Rape and the College Social Scene In Acquaintance â€Å"Rape and the College Social Scene,† the authors, Sally K. Ward, Kathy Chapman, Ellen Cohn, Susan White and Kirk Williams, main purpose was to report on a study they performed of the cases of sexual assaults at a specific college campus. The article provides estimates of the rate of acquaintance rape, recounting the situations surrounding the acquaintance rape, and people working toward making policies against this type of aggressionRead MoreSexual Assault On College Campuses1381 Words   |  6 Pages Sexual assault has been a huge issue for many years on college campuses and universities nation wide. As society has evolved, thoughts on sexual assault have also evolved, becoming more focused on the details of victim treatment than ever before. The topic of sexual assault is debatable and sparks many opinions on weather sexual assault on college campuses is becoming more frequent, or if there is just heightened awareness. Sexual assault can happen to anyb ody no matter the gender, race, religionRead MoreSexual Assault On College Campuses1591 Words   |  7 PagesSexual assault on college campuses is a growing epidemic. Twenty five percent of college women are affected by sexual assault (A. Amar, T. Strout, S. Simpson, M. Cardiello, S. Beckford, 2014, p. 93). Sexual assault is the non- consensual sexual touching of a person, in which a person is forced to engage in a sexual act against their will. Taking advantage of a person sexually is morally wrong, and causes victims of sexual assault significant emotional and physical damage. Sexual assault is a bigRead MoreRape Culture Through The Perspective Of Carry That Weight1014 Words   |  5 PagesRape Culture Through the Perspective of Carry That Weight Rape culture remains a taboo topic that needs to be further recognized in order to understand it and prevent it from continuing for the sake of future generations.ï » ¿ Unfortunately, current college students are victims of university standards that largely fail to protect them. Oftentimes, such as in the case of Emma Sulkowicz, a senior at Columbia University, cases of sexual assault are quieted in order to preserve the image of the institution

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Creating a Positive Classroom Environment Free Essays

string(159) " that promote higher order thinking that is often used in classrooms is asking students to work in pairs to create a concept map from a list of content words\." Creating a Positive Classroom Environment A classroom should be one of inquiry and open-mindedness. In order to foster a classroom of students who feel comfortable asking questions and are open to other students’ ideas it is imperative to create a positive, safe environment and learning community. I believe that students should feel like their classroom has high expectations, in how everyone treated each other, and in how learning took place. We will write a custom essay sample on Creating a Positive Classroom Environment or any similar topic only for you Order Now Creating a classroom environment where all students feel emotionally and physically safe enough to take risks is a real challenge and one that is worthy of the time it requires. The key to an inquiry-based curriculum is a safe, positive learning environment, therefore, it is foundational that the teacher work to provide, establish, and maintain that throughout the year. In the classroom, the teacher should be working on ways to develop a positive learning community by finding out more about my students. For example, each student should fill out a Who Am I questionnaire so that the teacher can get to know their student’s personalities, hobbies, likes and dislikes and therefore include them in lectures, discussions and explanations through out the year. The teacher should also engage in differentiated instruction in my classroom so that he/she can tailor specific lessons to fit different viewpoints, and abilities of students. This is also a demonstration of care and respect for students as they see their teacher notice certain aspects about their learning or personalities and tailors their instruction to meet their needs. One of the ways I would engage in differentiated instruction is by walking around the room and constantly being available to assist students. By offering them one-on-one assistance I can better gauge where their personal understanding and misconceptions are and tailor my teaching to them differently than I would to the class as a whole. In order to maintain a positive classroom environment, a teacher must use the ability to make quick decisions and to be flexible in the classroom. The teacher needs to make decisions and adjustments to enhance the student motivation, engagement, and productive work. One way I would make adjustments when there are issues in the classroom hindering the productive learning community is to create a new seating chart. I find that this act is often used enough to nip any potential social problems in the bud and sends a message to students that if they want to sit with their friends, they need to earn the privilege. You would be surprised with how a new seating chart for the class can increase productivity and engagement in core subject content instead of social life information. In a science classroom, experiments and lab work are an important way for students to engage in the content. All students in the class should work on labs at the same time with minimal supervision. The teacher must also be cognizant of how the resources of time, space, activities and attention are allocated to students throughout the short hour that they are in class. However, there are more traditional strategy for lab work. The difference comes in how many materials you have for certain labs, how much time it takes for each group of students to complete the experiment, and how tricky the directions are. Deciding which method to employ for a given lab and analyzing the classroom environment to decide which will work best in a given situation. In the Collier County School District it is acceptable to have up to 30 students in each classroom. It is difficult in this type of environment for students to feel that they are an important member of the learning community. I found that it was easy for certain students to disengage from activities and it was hard for the teacher to pick up on their lack of involvement because of the sheer number of other students in the room. Therefore, I thought up of an activity that would give the teacher time to walk around to individual students and check their understanding of the material. This lesson was an ACT preparation lesson where the students would be working on writing organized essays by finding a thesis statement, supporting it and including evidence from newspaper articles. I found that students would initially be hesitant to show their work to the teacher, but when they saw that the teacher would be going around to everyone at their table they became less nervous and more open to share their problems with understanding. When observing a classroom, one student even remarked as the teacher came to her, â€Å"I don’t know what I’m doing. She was a student that has never raised her hand to ask for help, but with the teachers inevitable arrival she was open to telling her teacher she did not understand. This showed me that if the teacher had not gone around to individual students she would not have told her teacher she did not understand. In order for a classroom to become a learning community it is important that it is organized, and meets clear standards of conduct. An environment in which students are assuming responsibility, participating in ecision-making, working collaboratively and independently, and engaging in purposeful learning activities that use higher order thinking skills and are all pieces of smoothly functioning learning communities. The first lesson that I would present to the class in the fall would be attempting to engage students in a purposeful learning activity that asked them to think deeply about the issues of a the subject that they are in class for. The students would first work together as a class and then the students work individually to show understanding. They were active members of the activity so they had a hand in the decision-making and therefore could assume some ownership and responsibility for the success of the activity. A strategy for engaging students in purposeful activities that promote higher order thinking that is often used in classrooms is asking students to work in pairs to create a concept map from a list of content words. You read "Creating a Positive Classroom Environment" in category "Papers" By working in pairs students are collaboratively building understanding and taking responsibility for their own learning plus their partner’s. As mentioned above, in order to have a smoothly functioning learning environment, clear standards of conduct must be established and enforced within the classroom. In order for students to feel safe enough to ask questions, engage in inquiry activities and take risks in their learning. They must feel secure and know that their teacher has clear standards of conduct that will be enforced. The first day of school is a very important day for establishing the standards of conduct that all students are expected to follow. It is also important that student behavior is monitored in a preventative way. One way is by asking a student who is very high-energy and can become disruptive to do small tasks during the hour to keep him engaged, such as feeding the class fish, or putting up the class grade sheet. This particular student can be disruptive and cause problems with other classmates, but with the teacher keeping him engaged when she sees him getting off-task, she is signaling to him that she notices him and has her eyes on his actions. This has been a successful strategy in keeping him out of trouble. However, all issues in a classroom cannot be prevented. Things do sometimes happen despite the best efforts of the teacher to create a safe learning environment. For example, say that you, the teacher had an incident in your classroom where two female students got very angry with each other and yelled loudly and violently at each other and refused to stop. This behavior is very upsetting to the teacher and to the class. And to be successful in resolving the situation, you just have to remove the two students from the class and separate them. In this situation it was important to thoroughly pick up the pieces after the incident was over. This is a very helpful way for a teachers peace of mind and further ability to create a safe learning environment. The teacher should also have individual talks with the students that created the problem. One student in particular would most likely have a very changed attitude about the class after the incident. In order to bring her back to being her enthusiastic self, the teacher should have a one-on-one talk with her, which greatly improved her attitude towards the class. One of the things that would help you to act appropriately when the incident happened in the classroom was the established standards of conduct and consequences that occur if students do not follow the standards. One way to foster students’ ability to engage in dialogue and argumentation and develop the language of thinking is to participate in Socratic seminars in class. Socratic seminars offer a tangible, engaging way for students to develop both ethics and critical thinking, actively and cooperatively. A discussion technique that I would use in my classroom would be an ethical discussion based on the merits and problems with new genetic testing that is available. Students engaged in small groups, then in the large session to discuss their opinions about genetic testing, based on a text they had all read. In order to help the discussion remain civil and productive, I used an ethical discussion framework that was very helpful. In a large classroom of 30 students it is often difficult to make time to meet with students individually to discuss their progress, but it is an important part of teaching that time must be allocated for. Therefore, a lesson plan that can allow the teacher to talk with students individually about an essay they had written. Lets just say that while students were in the Library Center working on ACT preparation tests the teacher then would be able to make time to talk with students individually about the strengths and weaknesses of their essays and what specific things to keep in mind when writing their next essay. This lesson shows a good allocation of time and attention so that students could take away concrete information from the lesson about what they need to work on with their writing and they also saw that their teacher cared about their progress enough to plan a special meeting with them. This one-on-one discussion time between teacher and student is something I do not see a lot of in school and I feel it is very important to include meaningful time talking with each student. In a science classroom it is very important that resources be used appropriately to help promote in-depth, inquiry-based understandings of content. I include it here to demonstrate how helpful it is for teachers to keep up-to-date on literature that is being written on the topics they are teaching. Through reading academic literature they can gain new ideas and insights on how to use technology effectively in their classroom in order to enhance learning and the classroom environment. Creating a positive classroom environment is a very important aspect of effective teaching. In a teachers student teaching placement it has been a priority for to establish and maintain a safe and positive environment where all students can grow, inquire, and learn. I feel strongly that a classroom should always be a safe one for students physically. At times there are going to be things said between students that cannot make it emotionally safe, but you, the teacher can always deal with the issues to send a strong message that your classroom is not a place to come down on peers. I do feel I have more to learn about enacting a true inquiry-based classroom, however. And I know that there are going to be times and lessons where I believe students should be actively involved in inquiry-based projects and if so, I would be very proud of them for their efforts. However, I would like to increase the times that this occurs and make my classroom into a place where students know they are going to question, explore and learn, and not just another stop on their school day schedule. How to cite Creating a Positive Classroom Environment, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Capital Structure and Wacc Calculation free essay sample

In 2008, the company continued to set the pace for industry growth. Revenues as well as per-share earnings increased during this period. The company strengthened its position in key consumer segments and returned value to stockholders through two means – stock buybacks and strong dividends. Highlights of the company’s 2008 financial performance include consolidated revenues that were up more than 4% over the previous year, reported EPS growth at 11. % to $2. 16 per share, return of $15. 6 to shareholders through share buybacks and strong dividends. About 43. 8% of the total capital of the company comes from debt and the remaining comes from equity. The cost of the different components of its capital structure are – debt: 2. 92% (after-tax cost), and equity: 9. 49%. The WACC is 6. 61%, based on the capital structure outlined. The effective tax rate is 35. 4%. ATT has had dividend growth for the last 25 years. The dividend growth this year was 2. % and the last yea r was 12. 7%. Dividends declared totalled . 61 per share in 2008, $1. 465 per share in 2007 and $1. 35 per share in 2006. The dividend policy considers both the expectations and requirements of stockholders, internal requirements of ATT and long-term growth opportunities. Introduction ATT is the largest communications holding company in the world by revenue. It is also one of the largest companies on the Fortune 500 and Fortune Global 500 lists. In 2008, the company had reported consolidated revenue of $124 billion. Randall L. Stephenson is the chairman and chief executive officer of ATT, whose global headquarters are in Dallas, Texas, USA and the company employs a workforce of over 294,000 worldwide. ATT is America’s fastest 3G network serving 81. 6 million customers. The company’s offerings include voice coverage in more than 215 countries, data roaming in more than 185 and 3G in more than 100 countries. ATT is the U. S. ireless carrier for the new iPhone 3GS, which launched in June 2009 and revolutionized the industry. It is also the only U. S. national service provider to offer a 100 percent IP-based television service with U-verse TV and the USAs largest provider of broadband — more than 17. 1 million high speed Internet subscribers (as of 3Q09). Apart from broadband, ATT is also the largest Wi-Fi provider, offering customers access at more than 125,000 hot spots spanning countries around the world. ATT is one of the worlds largest providers of IP-based communications services for businesses, with an extensive portfolio of Virtual Private Network (VPN), Voice over IP (VoIP) and other offerings, as well as the USAs largest directory publisher, delivering print directories to 173 million. The company is also the leading U. S. provider of local and long distance voice services and a world leader in the transport and termination of wholesale traffic — widely recognized for its industry-leading wholesale services portfolio. In 2008, the company continued to set the pace for industry growth. Revenues as well as per-share earnings increased during this period. The company strengthened its position in key consumer segments and returned value to stockholders through two means – stock buybacks and strong dividends. Highlights of the company’s 2008 financial performance include consolidated revenues that were up more than 4% over the previous year, reported EPS growth at 11. 3% to $2. 16 per share, return of $15. 6 to shareholders through share buybacks and strong dividends. Financial statements We have reproduced below, the financial statements of the company from its 2008 annual report. Debt consists of the borrowings of the company, in the form of notes, bonds, bank loans and other loans taken on by the company. A company must pay interest on its loans, which is the cost of borrowing the funds. The rate of interest paid represents the cost of this borrowing to the company and hence the cost of this component of the company’s capital structure. Equity consists of the capital invested by owners of the company’s stock; equity includes common share capital, retained earnings and additional paid-in capital. The sum of these three forms the shareholders’ equity portion of a company’s balance sheet. The returns to equity for an investor come from two sources – capital appreciation and dividends. Capital appreciation is the increase in the value of the ownership position in the company. Dividends are the periodic earnings distribution done by the company. The cost of equity is the required rate of return on the stock. Preferred stock is a special kind of stock which pays fixed dividends to its owners. A preferred stock does not include any voting rights, and preferred stock holders have a superior claim to company earnings than common stock holders, i. e. preferred stock holders must be paid off before earnings can be distributed to the common stock holders. The amount of debt present in a company’s capital structure is referred to as financial leverage. There is a trade-off involved here – the higher the amount of debt, the higher the financial risk, i. e. the risk of bankruptcy as there is a higher chance that the company may not be in a position to fulfil its financial obligations; however, a higher debt component in a company’s capital structure also means possibility of higher returns as the returns required on debt are lower than those required on equity. Calculating the capital structure of ATT All figures are in millions of $ Calculate the total debt: Debt maturing within one year 14119 Long-term debt 60872 Total Debt 74991 Total shareholders’ equity from balance sheet: Shareholders equity 96347 Total capital calculated as the sum of individual capital components: Total Debt 74991 Shareholders equity 96347 Total Capital 171338 Proportion of each component in the capital structure is calculated as follows: Total Debt 74991 74991 / 171338 0. 438 Shareholders equity 96347 96347 / 171338 0. 562 Total Capital 171338 1. 000 Capital structure of ATT: Capital Component Proportion in capital structure Debt 0. 438 Equity 0. 562 Cost of capital WACC or weighted average cost of capital is the average cost of the company’s capital weighted for the amounts of each type of capital in the capital structure. WACC = (Required Return on equity * proportion of equity) + (Required Return on preferred * proportion of preferred) + Required Return on debt * proportion of debt * (1-tax rate)) The required return on equity is given by solving the DDM (Dividend Discount Model) equation for k: Cost of equity = (D1 / P0) + g Similarly, the cost of preferred stock is given by the yearly dividend d ivided by the market price of the stock. Cost of preferred stock = Dp / P0 The cost of debt is the after-tax interest rate paid by the company on its debt. Cost of debt = Interest rate paid on debt * (1 – tax rate) We multiply the interest rate (required return) on debt by (1-tax rate) because the interest paid on debt is deducted while calculating taxable income. Calculating the cost of capital of ATT Effective tax rate = 35. 4% [available in annual report] Dividend growth rate = 2. % [available in annual report] Current value of ATT stock (NYSE:T) = $27. 32 [available online] Interest expense = 3390 [from income statement] Dividend per share = $1. 61 [from financial statements] Earnings per share = $2. 17 [from financial statements] Net income = 12867 [from income statement] Interest rate on company’s debt = (Interest expense / Total debt) = (3390/74991) = 4. 52% After-tax cost of debt = (1-tax rate) * pre-tax cost of debt = (1 – 0. 354) * 4. 52% = 2. 92% Sust ainable growth rate (g) = Return on Equity * Retention Ratio = (Net income / shareholders’ equity) * (1 (DPS/EPS) ) = (12867 / 96347) * (1- (1. 61/2. 17) ) = 3. 4% Cost of equity = (D1 / P0) + g = (Expected dividend for next year / Share price) + growth rate = (D0 * (1+g) / P0) + g = ((1. 61* 1. 034) / 27. 32) + 0. 034 = 9. 49% WACC = (2. 92% * 0. 438) + (9. 49% * 0. 562) = 6. 61% Component Cost Debt 2. 92% Equity 9. 49% WACC = 6. 61% Dividend policy ATT has had dividend growth for the last 25 years. The dividend growth this year was 2. 5% and the last year was 12. 7%. Dividends declared totalled $1. 61 per share in 2008, $1. 465 per share in 2007 and $1. 35 per share in 2006. The dividend policy considers both the expectations and requirements of stockholders, internal requirements of ATT and long-term growth opportunities. ATT intends to provide the financial flexibility to allow their Board of Directors to consider dividend growth and to recommend an increase in dividends to be paid in future periods. All dividends are subject to approval by the Board of Directors. The dividends paid by the company in the last three years are given below: Year Payment Date Record Date Amount 2009 11-02-09 10-09-09 $0. 41 08-03-09 07-10-09 $0. 41 05-01-09 04-09-09 $0. 41 02-02-09 01-09-09 $0. 41 2008 11-03-08 10-10-08 $0. 40 08-01-08 07-10-08 $0. 40 05-01-08 04-10-08 $0. 40 02-01-08 01-10-08 $0. 40 2007 11-01-07 10-10-07 $0. 355 08-01-07 07-10-07 $0. 355 05-01-07 04-10-07 $0. 355 02-01-07 01-10-07 $0. 355 As seen clearly, the dividends are paid in equal quarterly instalments. The dividend policy of ATT is well-defined and well-balanced for optimal growth as well as investor satisfaction. Analysis ATT is one of the biggest companies in the world and a pioneer in the world of communications technology and services. The company has paid dividends which have been growing year-on-year for the past 25 years. ATT as a company is an attractive choice for an investor. The company’s capital structure has 43. 8% of debt and the rest is equity. The company enjoys a low-rate on its debt, thanks to its high credit rating and promptness in paying off liabilities. The cost of the different components of its capital structure are – debt: 2. 92% (after-tax cost), and equity: 9. 49%. The WACC is 6. 61%, based on the capital structure outlined above. The amount of leverage represented by the company’s debt ratio is quite adequate to successfully make use of the low cost of debt, while at the same time not high enough to require investors to undertake significant financial risk. The return on equity was 13. 35% and the retention ratio was 25. 8%. The sustainable growth rate of the company, calculated as the product of return on equity and retention ratio of earnings is a healthy 3. 4% The company’s finances are well-managed and so are the operations. Conclusion ATT has a debt ratio of 43. 8%, a suitable level of financial leverage just shy of the halfway mark. This level of leverage allows the company to take advantage of the lower interest needed on its debt, thus increasing its returns on capital, while at the same time avoiding the problems of financial risk associated with over-leveraging. The company’s weighted average cost of capital is 6. 61%. The dividend policy places a high degree of importance on both long-term growth as well as investor satisfaction, as witnessed by the 25 years of continuous dividend growth that the company has exhibited. The company has a decent growth rate of 3. % and a healthy retention ratio suggests that the company’s management team sees good scope for long-term growth. The dividend policy reflects this stress on both investor satisfaction as well as long-term growth. A balance of both these objectives decides the dividend payout on a yearly basis. There have been significant fluc tuations in the rate of increase of dividends. This could be due to changing outlook in the industry as well as external economic conditions such as business cycles. Overall, ATT is a company with a rich history and very high brand equity. The company has been displaying profitable performance for the past several years.