Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Big Five Personality Traits And Factor Theories From...

Describe the â€Å"Big Five† personality traits. Trait and Factor Theories from Eysenck, McCrae, and Costa’s: Like Eysenck, McCrae and Costa’s thought that personality â€Å"traits are bipolar and follow a bell-shaped distribution.† Those who take the Big Five personality trait test tend to score in the middle (neither high or low) of the bell curve of each trait, and that only a few people score close to the five basic dimensions, a high, or low to the extremes. (Feist Feist, 2008, p.422) TABLE 14.1- Costa and McCrae’s Five-Factor Model of Personality The â€Å"Big Five† factor model include these five basic dimensions: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism. 1. Open to Experience V Practical a. Openness (High Scores): Imaginative, creative, original, prefers variety, curious, and liberal b. Practical (Low Scores): Down-to-earth, uncreative, conventional, prefers routine, uncurious, and conservative 2. Conscientiousness V Spontaneous: a. Conscientiousness (High Scores): Conscientious, hardworking, well-organized, punctual, ambitious, and persevering b. Spontaneousness (Low Scores): Negligent, lazy, disorganized, late, aimless, and quitting 3. Extraversion V Introversion: a. Extraversion (High Scores): Affectionate, joiner, talkative, fun loving, active, and passionate b. Introversion (Low Scores): Reserved, loner, quiet, sober, passive, and unfeeling 4. Agreeableness V Independence: a.Show MoreRelatedCosta And Mccrae s Five Factor Theory Of Personality And Eysenck s Pen Theory1496 Words   |  6 Pages Both Costa and McCrae’s Five Factor theory of personality and Eysenck’s PEN theory have been the subject of significant research in an effort to better understand human personality. This paper focuses on two opposing theories: Costa and McCrae’s Five Factor model, a lexically-based theory with five factors, and Eysenck’s PEN model, a biologically-based theory with three core traits of personality. Utilizing factor analysis, Raymond Cattell (1946) recognized 16 personality factors (16pf). CattellRead MoreThe Five Factor Model Of Personality1704 Words   |  7 Pagesvariety of models of personality, firstly taking into account Gordon Allport’s model, followed by Raymond Cattell’s 16 trait factor model and Eysenck’s, 3 factor model. Before, critically discussing the five factor model of personality and individual traits, these are made up of the characteristics of an individual which includes their, thoughts and behaviours that make a person unique. Finally this essay will suggest one other factor which might usefully be added to the five factor model to improveRead MoreTrait Theory4213 Words   |  17 PagesTrait theory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 1 of 8 Trait theory From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Trait theory in psychology, is an approach to the study of human personality. Trait theorists are primarily interested in the measurement of traits, which can be defined as habitual patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion.[1] According to this perspective, traits are relatively stable over time, differ across individuals (e.g. some people are outgoing whereas others are shy)Read MoreFive Factor Theory1616 Words   |  7 Pageshuman personality and disorders therein, with the intent to use this model in the remedying of personality disorders and improving general understanding of personality. Currently, a handful of models have risen to prominence, and have thus far stood the test of time. Some models are more generally accepted than others. Support for some models seems to come and go in cycles. One of the more prominent models in contemporary psychology is what is known as the five-factor model of personality. ThisRead MoreFive Dimensions of Personality and Their Correlation with Job Performance2733 Words   |  11 PagesThe accurate definition of personality has been a point of discussion amongst many different philosophers within many different disciplines since the beginning of civilization. Personality can be defined as the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment (Johns , 1996: 75). Personality has a rocky history within the workplace and organization behavior because of measurement problems. There is now a renewed interestRead MoreThe Biological Basis Of Personality Approach1747 Words   |  7 PagesThis essay will give a description of Personality before critically analysing the biological basis of personality approach. The biological basis approach tries to account for the me chanisms between genes and personality by looking at various different brain structures whilst the biochemical approach looks at the impact of hormones and neurotransmitters. The majority of our understanding of personality from a biological perspective focuses on the three main behavioural systems; the reward system,Read MoreRelationship Between Students Personality Traits and Their Academic Achievement4475 Words   |  18 PagesRelationship between Students’ Personality Traits and their Academic Achievement in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan Dr. Safdar Rehman Ghazi Assistant Professor/Director Institute of Education Research UST Bannu (KPK) Mr. Gulap Shahzada Institute of Education Research UST Bannu (KPK) Saif Ullah Institute of Education Research UST Bannu (KPK) Theoretical framework of this study based on Big Five Personality Trait Theory (Cattell’s Eysenck’sRead MoreIndividual Diffferences - How environmental factors affect Personality Intelligence1525 Words   |  7 Pagesin which environmental factors can impact on the development of an individual’s personality and intelligence. The discussion in this essay entails the extent to which environmental factors impact an individual’s development of personality and intelligence. Development can be defined as ‘improvement in function’ which would imply that it occurs with the progression of age. Personality has been found to have a substantial genetic influence however economic and social factors have been found to effectRead MorePersonality Traits2403 Words   |  10 PagesIn psychology, personality traits could be explained from many aspects, and one of them describes personality traits as categorizations of people’s particular characteristics (Burger, 1997) while others hold opposite ideas that personalities are more unique and different for each individual depending on his or her peculiar life experience. The former idea relates itself to nomothetic approach, which is a quantitative approach that studies personalities that people share in common to find out a generalRead MorePersonal ity Theories5586 Words   |  23 PagesPersonality Theories Almost everyday we describe and assess the personalities of the people around us. Whether we realize it or not, these daily musings on how and why people behave as they do are similar to what personality psychologists do. Personality psychology looks at the patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior that make a person unique. Some of the best known theories in psychology are devoted to the subject of personality. Almost everyday we describe and assess the personalities of

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Rape And Sexual Assault On College Campuses - 1824 Words

Emma Sulkowicz, a senior at Columbia University, carried her mattress around her campus, from class to class, all of last year as form of protest against her rapist who was not expelled from school. This story made news all across the country, leaving many wondering how this could possibly happen, and why it continues to happen. This is just one of the highly publicized cases of rape on college campuses, which also illuminates how often time administrators fail to bring justice to the victim. It seems as if of lately that rape and sexual assault on college campuses has become far too normal in our society, meaning that we have almost become numb to them because they happen so frequently. When we hear about a rape on a campus, it is often neither surprising nor shocking to us, which is a definite social, and criminal, problem. The question that must be addressed then is, why do these types of crimes continue to occur, and what factors contribute to this ongoing issue? It may be easy t o point a finger at society as a whole, and say that parents have wrongfully raised their sons to behave in such a way, but there may be even more factors that work together to create a rapist or someone who is likely to commit sexual assault. Nonetheless, this is a huge, relevant, terrifying problem in our society which often leaves young women feeling as if they are not ever safe, not even at the college campus of which they are supposed to be able to call home. This is an ongoing issue thatShow MoreRelatedRape And Sexual Assault On College Campuses919 Words   |  4 PagesAccording to the United States Supreme Court’s U.S Code 920 – Article 120, sexual assault and rape (a form of sexual assault) are legally identified as â€Å"sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual action perpetrated against a person without that person s consent† (H.R. Title 10 - Armed Forces 466). Now, in regards to why these individuals inflict these actions are summed up within the same U.S code in that they may be carried out by â€Å"physical force, coercion, abuse of authority, or against a personRead MoreSexual Assault And Rape Among College Campuses Essay1363 Words   |  6 PagesSexual assault and rape among college campuses has been an ongoing issue across the nation for decades. In the state of Utah, this complex issue will not have a simple solution, but measures can be taken to prevent sexual assault and rape occurring on campuses. Utah Valley University is a campus that is taking considerably impressive measures to combat sexual assault, which will be a basis of this paper. Through university sex education, stricter laws and enforcement, and providing on-campus servicesRead MoreRape And Sexual Assault Is Becoming A Sheer Problem On College Campuses1515 Words   |  7 PagesIn today’s society rape and sexual assault is becoming a sheer problem on college campuses around the United States. It is almost everyday that one hears about a sexual assault or rape case happening at a college, and sometimes its at the college that one attends or ones child attends. With this becoming a world renown problem, it can be a very scary thing for not only the students at college but also for the families of college students. To be more specific when it comes to who is starting to commitRead MoreRape Culture Essay1198 Words   |  5 PagesRape culture is prevalent on all college campuses, and many fail to realize this and what rape culture is. It is in the party scene, athletics, in dorm rooms, and everywhere else around campus. It is the acceptance of sexual jokes, saying â€Å"she was asking for it because of what she was wearing,† not taking sexual assault seriously, and so much more. Rape Culture is an environment in which rape is prevalent and in which sexual violence against women is normalized and excused in the media and popularRead MoreLack Of Rape Kits On College Campuses Essay1598 Words   |  7 Pages Lack of Rape Kits on College Campuses A Senior Project Research Paper Presented to the Faculty of Waiakea High School In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Senior Project Shania M. Rapoza Public Services Academy Capstone Mr. Joel Wagner-Wright August 23, 2016 Shania Rapoza Joel Wagner-Wright PSA Capstone 23 August 2016 Words: 1273 Lack of Rape Kits on College Campuses â€Å"What is the point of having a national DNA database, if the rapist s DNA is never entered into it?† (â€Å"PatternRead MoreSexual Assault On Campus : Opposing Viewpoints Essay1180 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction to Sexual Assault on Campus: Opposing Viewpoints. Sexual Assault on Campus. Ed. Jack Lasky. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2016. Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 17 Oct. 2016. The article introduces sexual assault to readers as a problem that is in line with other forms of violence such as domestic violence, dating violence and stalking. It gives a figure of 19% undergraduate women who have reported a complete or attempted sexual assault while in campusRead MoreAcquaintance Rape And The College Social Scene1595 Words   |  7 PagesAcquaintance Rape and the College Social Scene In Acquaintance â€Å"Rape and the College Social Scene,† the authors, Sally K. Ward, Kathy Chapman, Ellen Cohn, Susan White and Kirk Williams, main purpose was to report on a study they performed of the cases of sexual assaults at a specific college campus. The article provides estimates of the rate of acquaintance rape, recounting the situations surrounding the acquaintance rape, and people working toward making policies against this type of aggressionRead MoreSexual Assault On College Campuses1381 Words   |  6 Pages Sexual assault has been a huge issue for many years on college campuses and universities nation wide. As society has evolved, thoughts on sexual assault have also evolved, becoming more focused on the details of victim treatment than ever before. The topic of sexual assault is debatable and sparks many opinions on weather sexual assault on college campuses is becoming more frequent, or if there is just heightened awareness. Sexual assault can happen to anyb ody no matter the gender, race, religionRead MoreSexual Assault On College Campuses1591 Words   |  7 PagesSexual assault on college campuses is a growing epidemic. Twenty five percent of college women are affected by sexual assault (A. Amar, T. Strout, S. Simpson, M. Cardiello, S. Beckford, 2014, p. 93). Sexual assault is the non- consensual sexual touching of a person, in which a person is forced to engage in a sexual act against their will. Taking advantage of a person sexually is morally wrong, and causes victims of sexual assault significant emotional and physical damage. Sexual assault is a bigRead MoreRape Culture Through The Perspective Of Carry That Weight1014 Words   |  5 PagesRape Culture Through the Perspective of Carry That Weight Rape culture remains a taboo topic that needs to be further recognized in order to understand it and prevent it from continuing for the sake of future generations.ï » ¿ Unfortunately, current college students are victims of university standards that largely fail to protect them. Oftentimes, such as in the case of Emma Sulkowicz, a senior at Columbia University, cases of sexual assault are quieted in order to preserve the image of the institution

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Creating a Positive Classroom Environment Free Essays

string(159) " that promote higher order thinking that is often used in classrooms is asking students to work in pairs to create a concept map from a list of content words\." Creating a Positive Classroom Environment A classroom should be one of inquiry and open-mindedness. In order to foster a classroom of students who feel comfortable asking questions and are open to other students’ ideas it is imperative to create a positive, safe environment and learning community. I believe that students should feel like their classroom has high expectations, in how everyone treated each other, and in how learning took place. We will write a custom essay sample on Creating a Positive Classroom Environment or any similar topic only for you Order Now Creating a classroom environment where all students feel emotionally and physically safe enough to take risks is a real challenge and one that is worthy of the time it requires. The key to an inquiry-based curriculum is a safe, positive learning environment, therefore, it is foundational that the teacher work to provide, establish, and maintain that throughout the year. In the classroom, the teacher should be working on ways to develop a positive learning community by finding out more about my students. For example, each student should fill out a Who Am I questionnaire so that the teacher can get to know their student’s personalities, hobbies, likes and dislikes and therefore include them in lectures, discussions and explanations through out the year. The teacher should also engage in differentiated instruction in my classroom so that he/she can tailor specific lessons to fit different viewpoints, and abilities of students. This is also a demonstration of care and respect for students as they see their teacher notice certain aspects about their learning or personalities and tailors their instruction to meet their needs. One of the ways I would engage in differentiated instruction is by walking around the room and constantly being available to assist students. By offering them one-on-one assistance I can better gauge where their personal understanding and misconceptions are and tailor my teaching to them differently than I would to the class as a whole. In order to maintain a positive classroom environment, a teacher must use the ability to make quick decisions and to be flexible in the classroom. The teacher needs to make decisions and adjustments to enhance the student motivation, engagement, and productive work. One way I would make adjustments when there are issues in the classroom hindering the productive learning community is to create a new seating chart. I find that this act is often used enough to nip any potential social problems in the bud and sends a message to students that if they want to sit with their friends, they need to earn the privilege. You would be surprised with how a new seating chart for the class can increase productivity and engagement in core subject content instead of social life information. In a science classroom, experiments and lab work are an important way for students to engage in the content. All students in the class should work on labs at the same time with minimal supervision. The teacher must also be cognizant of how the resources of time, space, activities and attention are allocated to students throughout the short hour that they are in class. However, there are more traditional strategy for lab work. The difference comes in how many materials you have for certain labs, how much time it takes for each group of students to complete the experiment, and how tricky the directions are. Deciding which method to employ for a given lab and analyzing the classroom environment to decide which will work best in a given situation. In the Collier County School District it is acceptable to have up to 30 students in each classroom. It is difficult in this type of environment for students to feel that they are an important member of the learning community. I found that it was easy for certain students to disengage from activities and it was hard for the teacher to pick up on their lack of involvement because of the sheer number of other students in the room. Therefore, I thought up of an activity that would give the teacher time to walk around to individual students and check their understanding of the material. This lesson was an ACT preparation lesson where the students would be working on writing organized essays by finding a thesis statement, supporting it and including evidence from newspaper articles. I found that students would initially be hesitant to show their work to the teacher, but when they saw that the teacher would be going around to everyone at their table they became less nervous and more open to share their problems with understanding. When observing a classroom, one student even remarked as the teacher came to her, â€Å"I don’t know what I’m doing. She was a student that has never raised her hand to ask for help, but with the teachers inevitable arrival she was open to telling her teacher she did not understand. This showed me that if the teacher had not gone around to individual students she would not have told her teacher she did not understand. In order for a classroom to become a learning community it is important that it is organized, and meets clear standards of conduct. An environment in which students are assuming responsibility, participating in ecision-making, working collaboratively and independently, and engaging in purposeful learning activities that use higher order thinking skills and are all pieces of smoothly functioning learning communities. The first lesson that I would present to the class in the fall would be attempting to engage students in a purposeful learning activity that asked them to think deeply about the issues of a the subject that they are in class for. The students would first work together as a class and then the students work individually to show understanding. They were active members of the activity so they had a hand in the decision-making and therefore could assume some ownership and responsibility for the success of the activity. A strategy for engaging students in purposeful activities that promote higher order thinking that is often used in classrooms is asking students to work in pairs to create a concept map from a list of content words. You read "Creating a Positive Classroom Environment" in category "Papers" By working in pairs students are collaboratively building understanding and taking responsibility for their own learning plus their partner’s. As mentioned above, in order to have a smoothly functioning learning environment, clear standards of conduct must be established and enforced within the classroom. In order for students to feel safe enough to ask questions, engage in inquiry activities and take risks in their learning. They must feel secure and know that their teacher has clear standards of conduct that will be enforced. The first day of school is a very important day for establishing the standards of conduct that all students are expected to follow. It is also important that student behavior is monitored in a preventative way. One way is by asking a student who is very high-energy and can become disruptive to do small tasks during the hour to keep him engaged, such as feeding the class fish, or putting up the class grade sheet. This particular student can be disruptive and cause problems with other classmates, but with the teacher keeping him engaged when she sees him getting off-task, she is signaling to him that she notices him and has her eyes on his actions. This has been a successful strategy in keeping him out of trouble. However, all issues in a classroom cannot be prevented. Things do sometimes happen despite the best efforts of the teacher to create a safe learning environment. For example, say that you, the teacher had an incident in your classroom where two female students got very angry with each other and yelled loudly and violently at each other and refused to stop. This behavior is very upsetting to the teacher and to the class. And to be successful in resolving the situation, you just have to remove the two students from the class and separate them. In this situation it was important to thoroughly pick up the pieces after the incident was over. This is a very helpful way for a teachers peace of mind and further ability to create a safe learning environment. The teacher should also have individual talks with the students that created the problem. One student in particular would most likely have a very changed attitude about the class after the incident. In order to bring her back to being her enthusiastic self, the teacher should have a one-on-one talk with her, which greatly improved her attitude towards the class. One of the things that would help you to act appropriately when the incident happened in the classroom was the established standards of conduct and consequences that occur if students do not follow the standards. One way to foster students’ ability to engage in dialogue and argumentation and develop the language of thinking is to participate in Socratic seminars in class. Socratic seminars offer a tangible, engaging way for students to develop both ethics and critical thinking, actively and cooperatively. A discussion technique that I would use in my classroom would be an ethical discussion based on the merits and problems with new genetic testing that is available. Students engaged in small groups, then in the large session to discuss their opinions about genetic testing, based on a text they had all read. In order to help the discussion remain civil and productive, I used an ethical discussion framework that was very helpful. In a large classroom of 30 students it is often difficult to make time to meet with students individually to discuss their progress, but it is an important part of teaching that time must be allocated for. Therefore, a lesson plan that can allow the teacher to talk with students individually about an essay they had written. Lets just say that while students were in the Library Center working on ACT preparation tests the teacher then would be able to make time to talk with students individually about the strengths and weaknesses of their essays and what specific things to keep in mind when writing their next essay. This lesson shows a good allocation of time and attention so that students could take away concrete information from the lesson about what they need to work on with their writing and they also saw that their teacher cared about their progress enough to plan a special meeting with them. This one-on-one discussion time between teacher and student is something I do not see a lot of in school and I feel it is very important to include meaningful time talking with each student. In a science classroom it is very important that resources be used appropriately to help promote in-depth, inquiry-based understandings of content. I include it here to demonstrate how helpful it is for teachers to keep up-to-date on literature that is being written on the topics they are teaching. Through reading academic literature they can gain new ideas and insights on how to use technology effectively in their classroom in order to enhance learning and the classroom environment. Creating a positive classroom environment is a very important aspect of effective teaching. In a teachers student teaching placement it has been a priority for to establish and maintain a safe and positive environment where all students can grow, inquire, and learn. I feel strongly that a classroom should always be a safe one for students physically. At times there are going to be things said between students that cannot make it emotionally safe, but you, the teacher can always deal with the issues to send a strong message that your classroom is not a place to come down on peers. I do feel I have more to learn about enacting a true inquiry-based classroom, however. And I know that there are going to be times and lessons where I believe students should be actively involved in inquiry-based projects and if so, I would be very proud of them for their efforts. However, I would like to increase the times that this occurs and make my classroom into a place where students know they are going to question, explore and learn, and not just another stop on their school day schedule. How to cite Creating a Positive Classroom Environment, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Capital Structure and Wacc Calculation free essay sample

In 2008, the company continued to set the pace for industry growth. Revenues as well as per-share earnings increased during this period. The company strengthened its position in key consumer segments and returned value to stockholders through two means – stock buybacks and strong dividends. Highlights of the company’s 2008 financial performance include consolidated revenues that were up more than 4% over the previous year, reported EPS growth at 11. % to $2. 16 per share, return of $15. 6 to shareholders through share buybacks and strong dividends. About 43. 8% of the total capital of the company comes from debt and the remaining comes from equity. The cost of the different components of its capital structure are – debt: 2. 92% (after-tax cost), and equity: 9. 49%. The WACC is 6. 61%, based on the capital structure outlined. The effective tax rate is 35. 4%. ATT has had dividend growth for the last 25 years. The dividend growth this year was 2. % and the last yea r was 12. 7%. Dividends declared totalled . 61 per share in 2008, $1. 465 per share in 2007 and $1. 35 per share in 2006. The dividend policy considers both the expectations and requirements of stockholders, internal requirements of ATT and long-term growth opportunities. Introduction ATT is the largest communications holding company in the world by revenue. It is also one of the largest companies on the Fortune 500 and Fortune Global 500 lists. In 2008, the company had reported consolidated revenue of $124 billion. Randall L. Stephenson is the chairman and chief executive officer of ATT, whose global headquarters are in Dallas, Texas, USA and the company employs a workforce of over 294,000 worldwide. ATT is America’s fastest 3G network serving 81. 6 million customers. The company’s offerings include voice coverage in more than 215 countries, data roaming in more than 185 and 3G in more than 100 countries. ATT is the U. S. ireless carrier for the new iPhone 3GS, which launched in June 2009 and revolutionized the industry. It is also the only U. S. national service provider to offer a 100 percent IP-based television service with U-verse TV and the USAs largest provider of broadband — more than 17. 1 million high speed Internet subscribers (as of 3Q09). Apart from broadband, ATT is also the largest Wi-Fi provider, offering customers access at more than 125,000 hot spots spanning countries around the world. ATT is one of the worlds largest providers of IP-based communications services for businesses, with an extensive portfolio of Virtual Private Network (VPN), Voice over IP (VoIP) and other offerings, as well as the USAs largest directory publisher, delivering print directories to 173 million. The company is also the leading U. S. provider of local and long distance voice services and a world leader in the transport and termination of wholesale traffic — widely recognized for its industry-leading wholesale services portfolio. In 2008, the company continued to set the pace for industry growth. Revenues as well as per-share earnings increased during this period. The company strengthened its position in key consumer segments and returned value to stockholders through two means – stock buybacks and strong dividends. Highlights of the company’s 2008 financial performance include consolidated revenues that were up more than 4% over the previous year, reported EPS growth at 11. 3% to $2. 16 per share, return of $15. 6 to shareholders through share buybacks and strong dividends. Financial statements We have reproduced below, the financial statements of the company from its 2008 annual report. Debt consists of the borrowings of the company, in the form of notes, bonds, bank loans and other loans taken on by the company. A company must pay interest on its loans, which is the cost of borrowing the funds. The rate of interest paid represents the cost of this borrowing to the company and hence the cost of this component of the company’s capital structure. Equity consists of the capital invested by owners of the company’s stock; equity includes common share capital, retained earnings and additional paid-in capital. The sum of these three forms the shareholders’ equity portion of a company’s balance sheet. The returns to equity for an investor come from two sources – capital appreciation and dividends. Capital appreciation is the increase in the value of the ownership position in the company. Dividends are the periodic earnings distribution done by the company. The cost of equity is the required rate of return on the stock. Preferred stock is a special kind of stock which pays fixed dividends to its owners. A preferred stock does not include any voting rights, and preferred stock holders have a superior claim to company earnings than common stock holders, i. e. preferred stock holders must be paid off before earnings can be distributed to the common stock holders. The amount of debt present in a company’s capital structure is referred to as financial leverage. There is a trade-off involved here – the higher the amount of debt, the higher the financial risk, i. e. the risk of bankruptcy as there is a higher chance that the company may not be in a position to fulfil its financial obligations; however, a higher debt component in a company’s capital structure also means possibility of higher returns as the returns required on debt are lower than those required on equity. Calculating the capital structure of ATT All figures are in millions of $ Calculate the total debt: Debt maturing within one year 14119 Long-term debt 60872 Total Debt 74991 Total shareholders’ equity from balance sheet: Shareholders equity 96347 Total capital calculated as the sum of individual capital components: Total Debt 74991 Shareholders equity 96347 Total Capital 171338 Proportion of each component in the capital structure is calculated as follows: Total Debt 74991 74991 / 171338 0. 438 Shareholders equity 96347 96347 / 171338 0. 562 Total Capital 171338 1. 000 Capital structure of ATT: Capital Component Proportion in capital structure Debt 0. 438 Equity 0. 562 Cost of capital WACC or weighted average cost of capital is the average cost of the company’s capital weighted for the amounts of each type of capital in the capital structure. WACC = (Required Return on equity * proportion of equity) + (Required Return on preferred * proportion of preferred) + Required Return on debt * proportion of debt * (1-tax rate)) The required return on equity is given by solving the DDM (Dividend Discount Model) equation for k: Cost of equity = (D1 / P0) + g Similarly, the cost of preferred stock is given by the yearly dividend d ivided by the market price of the stock. Cost of preferred stock = Dp / P0 The cost of debt is the after-tax interest rate paid by the company on its debt. Cost of debt = Interest rate paid on debt * (1 – tax rate) We multiply the interest rate (required return) on debt by (1-tax rate) because the interest paid on debt is deducted while calculating taxable income. Calculating the cost of capital of ATT Effective tax rate = 35. 4% [available in annual report] Dividend growth rate = 2. % [available in annual report] Current value of ATT stock (NYSE:T) = $27. 32 [available online] Interest expense = 3390 [from income statement] Dividend per share = $1. 61 [from financial statements] Earnings per share = $2. 17 [from financial statements] Net income = 12867 [from income statement] Interest rate on company’s debt = (Interest expense / Total debt) = (3390/74991) = 4. 52% After-tax cost of debt = (1-tax rate) * pre-tax cost of debt = (1 – 0. 354) * 4. 52% = 2. 92% Sust ainable growth rate (g) = Return on Equity * Retention Ratio = (Net income / shareholders’ equity) * (1 (DPS/EPS) ) = (12867 / 96347) * (1- (1. 61/2. 17) ) = 3. 4% Cost of equity = (D1 / P0) + g = (Expected dividend for next year / Share price) + growth rate = (D0 * (1+g) / P0) + g = ((1. 61* 1. 034) / 27. 32) + 0. 034 = 9. 49% WACC = (2. 92% * 0. 438) + (9. 49% * 0. 562) = 6. 61% Component Cost Debt 2. 92% Equity 9. 49% WACC = 6. 61% Dividend policy ATT has had dividend growth for the last 25 years. The dividend growth this year was 2. 5% and the last year was 12. 7%. Dividends declared totalled $1. 61 per share in 2008, $1. 465 per share in 2007 and $1. 35 per share in 2006. The dividend policy considers both the expectations and requirements of stockholders, internal requirements of ATT and long-term growth opportunities. ATT intends to provide the financial flexibility to allow their Board of Directors to consider dividend growth and to recommend an increase in dividends to be paid in future periods. All dividends are subject to approval by the Board of Directors. The dividends paid by the company in the last three years are given below: Year Payment Date Record Date Amount 2009 11-02-09 10-09-09 $0. 41 08-03-09 07-10-09 $0. 41 05-01-09 04-09-09 $0. 41 02-02-09 01-09-09 $0. 41 2008 11-03-08 10-10-08 $0. 40 08-01-08 07-10-08 $0. 40 05-01-08 04-10-08 $0. 40 02-01-08 01-10-08 $0. 40 2007 11-01-07 10-10-07 $0. 355 08-01-07 07-10-07 $0. 355 05-01-07 04-10-07 $0. 355 02-01-07 01-10-07 $0. 355 As seen clearly, the dividends are paid in equal quarterly instalments. The dividend policy of ATT is well-defined and well-balanced for optimal growth as well as investor satisfaction. Analysis ATT is one of the biggest companies in the world and a pioneer in the world of communications technology and services. The company has paid dividends which have been growing year-on-year for the past 25 years. ATT as a company is an attractive choice for an investor. The company’s capital structure has 43. 8% of debt and the rest is equity. The company enjoys a low-rate on its debt, thanks to its high credit rating and promptness in paying off liabilities. The cost of the different components of its capital structure are – debt: 2. 92% (after-tax cost), and equity: 9. 49%. The WACC is 6. 61%, based on the capital structure outlined above. The amount of leverage represented by the company’s debt ratio is quite adequate to successfully make use of the low cost of debt, while at the same time not high enough to require investors to undertake significant financial risk. The return on equity was 13. 35% and the retention ratio was 25. 8%. The sustainable growth rate of the company, calculated as the product of return on equity and retention ratio of earnings is a healthy 3. 4% The company’s finances are well-managed and so are the operations. Conclusion ATT has a debt ratio of 43. 8%, a suitable level of financial leverage just shy of the halfway mark. This level of leverage allows the company to take advantage of the lower interest needed on its debt, thus increasing its returns on capital, while at the same time avoiding the problems of financial risk associated with over-leveraging. The company’s weighted average cost of capital is 6. 61%. The dividend policy places a high degree of importance on both long-term growth as well as investor satisfaction, as witnessed by the 25 years of continuous dividend growth that the company has exhibited. The company has a decent growth rate of 3. % and a healthy retention ratio suggests that the company’s management team sees good scope for long-term growth. The dividend policy reflects this stress on both investor satisfaction as well as long-term growth. A balance of both these objectives decides the dividend payout on a yearly basis. There have been significant fluc tuations in the rate of increase of dividends. This could be due to changing outlook in the industry as well as external economic conditions such as business cycles. Overall, ATT is a company with a rich history and very high brand equity. The company has been displaying profitable performance for the past several years.

Thursday, March 26, 2020

Weakness In Corporate Governance And Lack Of Transparency Accounting Essay Example For Students

Weakness In Corporate Governance And Lack Of Transparency Accounting Essay Weakness in corporate administration and deficiency of transparence are considered causes of the Asiatic fiscal crisis. ( Wan et al 2010 ) . The corporate dirts happened in the early 2000s urged regulators around the universe to accommodate the medical specialty to unwellness of the planetary fiscal stableness by institute CG reforms. For case, the Combined Code and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act were so introduced and enacted in UK and US severally. As an international fiscal and concern hub, Hong Kong is bound to take its portion of the sweeping impact of the Asiatic fiscal crisis and the dirts. Hong Kong Stock Exchange determined to present the codification of CG effectual from 2005, with similar commissariats on fiscal revelations in the universe. Most of the surveies utilizing US and UK informations indicated that the quality of corporate administration patterns has improved when houses comply with the commissariats of the codification. A study conducted by a research squad headed by Pr ofessor Stephen Cheung in Hong Kong generated a consistent consequence with those surveies ; it indicated that the CG criterion of Hong Kong listed houses had been improved evidently in 2005. We will write a custom essay on Weakness In Corporate Governance And Lack Of Transparency Accounting specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now 2.1.3. Earning Management While regulators aware the issues about CG after the dirts, the assurance of investors around the universe who rely on the reported net incomes on the fiscal statement to do their investing determinations have been significantly shaken. Net incomes is ever the most important index to measure how a house performs. EM refers to use of a house s net incomes through direct or indirect accounting methods to accomplish a coveted degree and that does non reflect the economic world to misdirect FS users about the corporate public presentation or deriving self-interest. In short, the patterns of EM deter the credibleness of fiscal coverage. There is dozenss of empirical researches grounds that good CG better the transparence of the quality fiscal coverage which provides more decision-useful information to investors irrespective of the geographical location of the listed company. Some of GCG mechanisms include the being of independent board of managers, audit commission, no CEO dichotomy, no T op Share ( commanding stockholder ) , and stockholder s alliance in order to confront commanding stockholder. ( Werner R. Murhadi 2009 ) . 2.1.4. The alone characteristics of Hong Kong Firms. A planetary codification of CG should non be applied as a criterion among the universe attributed to the alone scenes of each legal power. It is of import for regulators and analysts to understand the unique characteristics and regional conditions affect the inducement of pull offing net incomes and the coverage quality. Therefore, Most of the researches have done to look into the relationship between the CG patterns and EM with US informations, merely a few O f them analyses about the issues in other parts. An premise that a same consequence will be concluded when analysing HK information is dubious. The widely acknowledged household ownership concentration feature of HK listed houses is still considered as the major subscriber of the failure of CG even after the debut of the codification. See the ballot use done by PCCW and the matter of Citic Pacific in 2009. 2.2 Literature reappraisal The research paper which examine whether the revelation of Corporate Governance Structures affect the market rating of net incomes surprises and houses net incomes direction, Jui-Chin Chang and Huey-Lian Sun ( 2010 ) , suggested that the effectivity of corporate administration in supervising net incomes direction is improved after the mandated revelation. This determination is consistent with the consequence of the research on CG and net incomes prognosiss accuracy which supported that it is effectual to heighten the quality of fiscal revelation by revising the Malayan Code on Corporate Governance to promote public companies to implement good administration patterns. ( Ahmad-Zaluki et al 2010 ) . However, Davies and Schlitzer ( 2008 ) in their paper raised the inquiry about the practicality of an international one size fits all corporate administration codification of best pattern and the consequence of the paper implied that the credence of a planetary corporate administration codification is limited due to the versions in the concern environment. Ching, M.L.K. et Al. ( 2002 ) in their research contended that CG mechanisms and monitoring and inadvertence activities will impact the usage of EM, and the importance of these factors varies across houses and national legal powers. Because CG, the legal environment, and monitoring activities are far different in Hong Kong than in the U.S. , research surveies utilizing American informations have limited relevancy for HK. .ucebeb106c97a28e623ed2c71eb01b70c , .ucebeb106c97a28e623ed2c71eb01b70c .postImageUrl , .ucebeb106c97a28e623ed2c71eb01b70c .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ucebeb106c97a28e623ed2c71eb01b70c , .ucebeb106c97a28e623ed2c71eb01b70c:hover , .ucebeb106c97a28e623ed2c71eb01b70c:visited , .ucebeb106c97a28e623ed2c71eb01b70c:active { border:0!important; } .ucebeb106c97a28e623ed2c71eb01b70c .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ucebeb106c97a28e623ed2c71eb01b70c { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ucebeb106c97a28e623ed2c71eb01b70c:active , .ucebeb106c97a28e623ed2c71eb01b70c:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ucebeb106c97a28e623ed2c71eb01b70c .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ucebeb106c97a28e623ed2c71eb01b70c .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ucebeb106c97a28e623ed2c71eb01b70c .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ucebeb106c97a28e623ed2c71eb01b70c .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ucebeb106c97a28e623ed2c71eb01b70c:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ucebeb106c97a28e623ed2c71eb01b70c .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ucebeb106c97a28e623ed2c71eb01b70c .ucebeb106c97a28e623ed2c71eb01b70c-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ucebeb106c97a28e623ed2c71eb01b70c:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Foreign Direct Investment in China EssayA big proportion of HK listed houses are controlled by households. When most of the consequences of empirical researches supported the positive association between the CG mechanism and houses net incomes quality, the alone characteristics of Hong Kong is non being considered in those researches. A rare research done by Jaggi, B. , et Al. ( 2009 ) used samples before the acceptance of codification of corporate administration and happen that a higher proportion of independent corporate boards of HK houses is associated with more effectual monitoring to restrain EM by discouraging directors from pull stringsing the reported net incomes ; therefore the net incomes quality is expected to be high despite differences in institutional environments. However, it is non the instance of which the houses are family-controlled, either through ownership concentration or the presence of household members on corporate boards. 2.3 Objective While infinite surveies have already done with informations of parts other than HK about the association between CG and EM, some of them have besides emphasized on the individuality of household ownership concentration in Asiatic parts. This survey is done for the intent of measuring the effectivity of the Code of Corporate Governance Practices effectual from 2005 on cut downing EM patterns and bettering net incomes quality of HK Firms. Focus on the singularity of the Hong Kong Firms ownership construction to look into whether compulsory revelation of corporate administration structures improves the quality of fiscal information of Hong Kong family-controlled houses. 2.4 Statement of hypothesis 2.4.1 Indentifying Corporate administration The research generated by Dey, ( 2008 ) examined that different states have different corporate administration construction. She considered 12 variables of corporate administration to mensurate different corporate administration construction, such as the effectivity of the audit commission and dichotomy of CEOs and so on. To find corporate administration, we would utilize five variables including a majority-independent audit commission, a majority-independent board, fiscal professional holding sufficient accounting experience on the commission, large 4 hearers and the separation CEO and chair place. 2.4.2 Audit commission and gaining quality Harmonizing to Hong Kong Exchange and glade limited ( HKEX ) , after the acceptance of codification of corporate administration effectual that is in 2005, it is a must for Hong Kong listed companies to set up an audit commission, consisting non-executive manager ( NED ) and holding at least three members. Based on the research of Bedard, and Courteau ( 2001 ) , the higher the per centum of independent non-executive manager that are non directors in other houses, the higher the earning quality is. Therefore, the hypothesis we develop should be: H1: There is positive relationship between the being of a majority-independent audit commission and gaining quality after the codification 2.4.3. Independent board of manager and earning direction Harmonizing to Liu and Lu ( 2007 ) , they found that when fixing fiscal statement, the board of manager can assist to supervise and forestall commanding stockholder as this act may do harm to the other stockholder. Besides, the Hong Kong boards of manager were by codification at least three NED members every bit good. H2: There is positive relationship between the proportion of Independent non-executive managers on the board and gaining quality after the codification. 2.4.4. CEO dichotomy and earning direction Harmonizing to R. Murhadi, Werner. Dr ( 2009 ) , he found that if there is any occupation dichotomy, it was less effectual and strongly act upon higher degree of discretional accrual. Anderson et Al. ( 2003 ) found that net incomes informativeness is positively associated with houses holding separated CEO and chair places H3: The being of CEO dichotomy positively influences the degree of net incomes direction after the codification. 2.4.4 Large 4 hearers and gaining direction The old research done by Klein ( 2003 ) found that Large 4 hearers may switch some of their duty of supervising fiscal describing to houses audit commissions after SOX. Therefore, there may be difference between discretional accumulations and Big 4 hearer in the before period of SOX. .u502be8422ade5f74a979e785b6f6c6b2 , .u502be8422ade5f74a979e785b6f6c6b2 .postImageUrl , .u502be8422ade5f74a979e785b6f6c6b2 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u502be8422ade5f74a979e785b6f6c6b2 , .u502be8422ade5f74a979e785b6f6c6b2:hover , .u502be8422ade5f74a979e785b6f6c6b2:visited , .u502be8422ade5f74a979e785b6f6c6b2:active { border:0!important; } .u502be8422ade5f74a979e785b6f6c6b2 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u502be8422ade5f74a979e785b6f6c6b2 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u502be8422ade5f74a979e785b6f6c6b2:active , .u502be8422ade5f74a979e785b6f6c6b2:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u502be8422ade5f74a979e785b6f6c6b2 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u502be8422ade5f74a979e785b6f6c6b2 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u502be8422ade5f74a979e785b6f6c6b2 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u502be8422ade5f74a979e785b6f6c6b2 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u502be8422ade5f74a979e785b6f6c6b2:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u502be8422ade5f74a979e785b6f6c6b2 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u502be8422ade5f74a979e785b6f6c6b2 .u502be8422ade5f74a979e785b6f6c6b2-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u502be8422ade5f74a979e785b6f6c6b2:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Human Rights Issue of Guantanamo Bay EssayH4: There is a negative relation between gaining direction and proportion of Large 4 hearers after the codification. 2.4.5 Experts in audit commission and gaining direction The Code in Hong Kong required that among the three members, it should include at least an independent NED with sufficient and appropriate fiscal experience. Xie, Davison, and DaDalt ( 2003 ) use pre-SOX samples to look into that audit commission members holding fiscal experience/background negatively influence discretional accumulations. H5: There is a negative relation between discretional accumulations and the existent of fiscal experts on audit commissions after the codification. 2.4.6. household control and gaining direction Due to the different outlooks sing the consequence of household control on net incomes direction, Jaggi-Leung usage pre-code sample to demo that an addition in the proportion of outside managers to beef up board monitoring is improbable to be effectual in family-controlled houses. The per centum of NED on the board to a entire figure of managers is counted 20 % as cut-off point. H6: There is a negative relation between the existent of household ownership control and net incomes quality after the codification. 3.Methodology 3.1 Sample aggregation It is to seek the WiseNews Database and HKEX website to roll up the informations for all Hong Kong Listed Firms in all industry for old ages before and after acceptance of codification which is accounting period of 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 severally. 3.2 Research Design By utilizing the fiscal informations examined from the above database, it is decided to research all houses excepting Bankss, insurance and trusts companies as they manage gaining obtaining different inducements and chances. ( Peasnell et al, 2000 ) For proving net incomes direction, Dechow et al. , 1995 suggested to utilize modified Joness theoretical account to mensurate discretional accumulations. However, based on Kothari, Leone and Wasley ( 2005 ) , in add-on to the modified theoretical account, they use return on assets as one of variable so as to gauge accumulations more accurately. It is cross-sectional arrested development by utilizing two-digit SIC codification, so happen out the estimated coefficient by the undermentioned expression: ( Entire discretional accumulation ) TACCjt = AÂ µ0+ AÂ µ1 ( 1/ ATit-1 ) + AÂ µ2 ( DSale/ATit-1 ) + AÂ µ3 ( PPE/ ATit-1 ) + AÂ µ4 ROAit-1 ( 1 ) Then, NON-ACCjt = ?1 ( 1/ATjt-1 ) + ?2 ( DSalesjt DRECjt ) /ATjt-1 +?3 ( PPE/ATjt-1 ) +?4 ROAjt ( 2 ) Then, ciphering the discretional accrual by utilizing the undermentioned expression, DACCjt = TACCjt NON-ACCjt ( 3 ) Using the arrested development theoretical account to ciphering the information before and after the codification of corporate administration, DACCit = p 0 + AÂ §1 Auditindep + AÂ §2 BdIndep + AÂ §3 AccExp + AÂ §4 CEODua + AÂ §5 Big 4 + AÂ §FAMOWN ( 4 ) Where: ROA = the ratio of net income to entire assets FAMOWN = 1 if proportion of household members divided by entire figure manager is greater than 20 % , 0 for other than this instance. BdIndep: The figure of independent board managers calculated by the no. of board members AuditIndep: The figure of independent audit commission members calculated by the no. of audit commission members AccExp: 1 for holding fiscal professional experience and 0 for none and divided by the no. of audit commission members Large 4: It is an index of the Big 4 hearers. It is one if the house was Large 4 accounting houses client and it is zero if non. CEODua: it may be 1 when CEO is the house s manager of the board, 0 when it is non the instance. 4. Time agenda Time Action January Complete the background of the job and aims Research information for methodological analysis 1st 11th February Finish Methodology Collect informations by utilizing package i.e. Excel 12th 28th February Solve the jobs that will meet during the procedure of roll uping informations, such as, uncertainness about any informations Analyze informations and do consequence of the analysis March Write treatments Interpret the informations what we find Finish recommendations, decisions, sum-up of the undertaking 1 4th April Complete the bill of exchange to supervisor 5 28th April Complete the mention lists Review and proofread the grammar, organisation, format of undertaking Amend some parts based on remarks of supervisors

Friday, March 6, 2020

Classical Abbreviations for Authors and Their Works

Classical Abbreviations for Authors and Their Works There are certain standard abbreviations used in connection with the authors and their works in Classics. While I generally spell out the names and works of ancient authors, it is not always possible. Besides, youll find the abbreviations elsewhere. The following is a list of the ancient, non-Biblical writers and their works that you are likely to encounter during your study of Classics. Ill elaborate the first sets of abbreviations and a few throughout the list that might be puzzling. Aesch. Ag.: Aeschylus, AgamemnonThe author comes first; his work comes next, so this abbreviation means Aeschylus, a tragic playwright, wrote a tragedy called Agamemnon.Aesch. Eum.: Aeschylus, EumenidesAesch. Lib.: Aeschylus, Libation BearersAesch. PB: Aeschylus, Prometheus BoundAesch. Pers.: Aeschylus, PersiansAesch. Seven: Aeschylus, Seven Against ThebesAesch. Supp.: Aeschylus, Suppliant MaidensAeschin. 1: Aeschines, Against TimarchusAeschin. 2: Aeschines, On the EmbassyAeschin. 3: Aeschines, Against CtesiphonAmm.: Ammianus Marcellinus, Rerum GestarumAndoc. 1: Andocides, On the MysteriesAndoc. 2: Andocides, On his ReturnAndoc. 3: Andocides, On the PeaceAndoc. 4: Andocides, Against AlcibiadesAntiph. 1: Antiphon, Against the Stepmother for PoisoningAntiph. 2: Antiphon, First TetralogyAntiph. 3: Antiphon, Second TetralogyAntiph. 4: Antiphon, Third TetralogyAntiph. 5: Antiphon, On the murder of HerodesAntiph. 6: Antiphon, On the ChoreutesApollod.: Pseudo-Apollodorus, LibraryApollod. Ep it.: Pseudo-Apollodorus, Epitome Apollon.: Apollonius Rhodius, ArgonauticaNothing besides the Argonautica is attributed to Apollonius.App. BC: Appian, Civil WarsBC stands for bellum civile which means civil war.App. Gall.: Appian, Gallic HistoryApp. Hann.: Appian, Hannibalic WarApp. Hisp.: Appian, Wars in SpainApp. Ill.: Appian, Illyrian WarsApp. Ital.: Appian, ItalyApp. Mac.: Appian, Macedonian AffairsApp. Mith.: Appian, Mithridatic WarsApp. Praef.: Appian, PrefacePraef. is short for Praefatio which means preface.App. Pun.: Appian, Punic WarsApp. Reg.: Appian, KingsApp. Sam.: Appian, Samnite HistoryApp. Sic.: Appian, Sicily and the Other IslandsApp. Syr.: Appian, Syrian WarsAret. CA: Aretaeus, De curatione acutorum morborum libri duoAret. CD: Aretaeus, De curatione diuturnorum morborum libri duoAret. SA: Aretaeus, De causis et signis acutorum morborum (lib. 1)Aret. SD: Aretaeus, De causis et signis acutorum morborum (lib. 2)Aristoph. Ach.: Aristophanes, AcharniansAristoph. Birds: Aristophanes, BirdsAristoph. Cl.: A ristophanes, Clouds Aristoph. Eccl.: Aristophanes, EcclesiazusaeAristoph. Frogs: Aristophanes, FrogsAristoph. Kn.: Aristophanes, KnightsAristoph. Lys.: Aristophanes, LysistrataAristoph. Peace: Aristophanes, PeaceAristoph. Pl.: Aristophanes, PlutusAristoph. Thes.: Aristophanes, ThesmophoriazusaeAristoph. Wasps: Aristophanes, WaspsAristot. Ath. Pol.: Aristotle, Constitution of the AtheniansAristot. Const. Ath.: Aristotle, Constitution of the AtheniansAristot. Econ.: Aristotle, EconomicsAristot. Eud. Eth.: Aristotle, Eudemian EthicsAristot. Met.: Aristotle, MetaphysicsAristot. Nic. Eth.: Aristotle, Nicomachean EthicsAristot. Poet.: Aristotle, PoeticsAristot. Pol.: Aristotle, PoliticsAristot. Rh.: Aristotle, RhetoricAristot. Vir.: Aristotle, Virtues and VicesAug. Anc.: Augustus, Res GestaeThe name of the work by Augustus is given as both Monumentum Ancyranum and Res Gestae Divi Augusti.Aug. RG: Augustus, Res GestaeBacchyl. Dith.: Bacchylides, DithyrambsBacchyl. Ep.: Bacchylides, EpiniciansBoe. Cons.: Boethi us, Consolation of Philosophy Caes. Civ.: Caesar, Civil WarCaes. Gal.: Caesar, Gallic WarCall. Ap.: Callimachus, Hymn to ApolloCall. Cer.: Callimachus, Hymn to DemeterCall. Del.: Callimachus, Hymn to DelosCall. Dem.: Callimachus, Hymn to DemeterCall. Dian.: Callimachus, Hymn to ArtemisCall. Epigr.: Callimachus, EpigramsCall. H. 1: Callimachus, Hymn to ZeusCall. H. 2: Callimachus, Hymn to ApolloCall. H. 3: Callimachus, Hymn to ArtemisCall. H. 4: Callimachus, Hymn to DelosCall. H. 5: Callimachus, Hymn to AthenaCall. H. 6: Callimachus, Hymn to DemeterCall. Jov.: Callimachus, Hymn to ZeusCall. Lav.: Callimachus, Hymn to AthenaCatul.: Catullus, PoemsCels.: A. Cornelius Celsus, De MedicinaCic. Ac.: Cicero, AcademicaCic. Agr.: Cicero, On the Agrarian LawCic. Amic.: Cicero, De AmicitiaCic. Arch.: Cicero, For ArchiasCic. Att.: Cicero, Letters to AtticusCic. Balb.: Cicero, For Cornelius BalbusCic. Caec.: Cicero, For Aulus CaecinaCic. Cael.: Cicero, For Marcus CaeliusCic. Catil.: Cicero, Against CatilineCic. Clu.: Cicero, F or Aulus Cluentius Cic. Deiot.: Cicero, For King DeiotariusCic. Div.: Cicero, De DivinationeCic. Div. Caec.: Cicero, Divinatio against Q. CaeciliusCic. Dom.: Cicero, On his HouseCic. Fam.: Cicero, Letters to his FriendsCic. Fat.: Cicero, De FatoCic. Fin.: Cicero, de Finibus Bonorum et MalorumCic. Flac.: Cicero, For FlaccusCic. Font.: Cicero, For Marcus FonteiusCic. Har.: Cicero, On the Responses of the HaruspicesCic. Leg.: Cicero, De LegibusCic. Lig.: Cicero, For LigariusCic. Luc.: Cicero, LucullusCic. Man.: Cicero, On Pompeys CommandCic. Marc.: Cicero, For MarcellusCic. Mil.: Cicero, For MiloCic. Mur.: Cicero, For Lucius MurenaCic. N.D.: Cicero, de Natura DeorumCic. Off.: Cicero, De OfficiisCic. Parad.: Cicero, Paradoxa StoicorumCic. Phil.: Cicero, PhilippicsCic. Pis.: Cicero, Against PisoCic. Planc.: Cicero, For PlanciusCic. Prov.: Cicero, On the Consular ProvincesCic. Q. Rosc.: Cicero, For Quintus Roscius the ActorCic. Q. fr.: Cicero, Letters to his brother QuintusCic. Quinct.: Cicero, For Publius Q uinctius Cic. Rab. Perd.: Cicero, For Rabirius on a Charge of TreasonCic. Rab. Post.: Cicero, For Rabirius PostumusCic. Red. Pop.: Cicero, To the Citizens after his ReturnCic. Red. Sen.: Cicero, In the Senate after his ReturnCic. Rep.: Cicero, De RepublicaCic. S. Rosc.: Cicero, For Sextus Roscius of AmeriaCic. Scaur.: Cicero, For Aemilius ScaurusCic. Sen.: Cicero, De SenectuteCic. Sest.: Cicero, For SestiusCic. Sul.: Cicero, For SullaCic. Tul.: Cicero, For Marcus TulliusCic. Tusc.: Cicero, Tusculanae DisputationesCic. Vat.: Cicero, Against VatiniusCic. Ver.: Cicero, Against VerresCic. ad Brut.: Cicero, Letters to BrutusCic. de Orat.: Cicero, On OratoryD. L.: Diogenes Laertius, Vitae philosophorumDem. 1: Demosthenes, Olynthiac 1Dem. 10: Demosthenes, Philippic 4Dem. 11: Demosthenes, Reply to PhilipDem. 12: Demosthenes, PhilipDem. 13: Demosthenes, On OrganizationDem. 14: Demosthenes, On the NavyDem. 15: Demosthenes, On the Liberty of the RhodiansDem. 16: Demosthenes, For the MegalopolitansDem. 1 7: Demosthenes, On the Accession of Alexander Dem. 18: Demosthenes, On the CrownDem. 19: Demosthenes, On the False EmbassyDem. 2: Demosthenes, Olynthiac 2Dem. 20: Demosthenes, Against LeptinesDem. 21: Demosthenes, Against MidiasDem. 22: Demosthenes, Against AndrotionDem. 23: Demosthenes, Against AristocratesDem. 24: Demosthenes, Against TimocratesDem. 25: Demosthenes, Against Aristogiton 1Dem. 26: Demosthenes, Against Aristogiton 2Dem. 27: Demosthenes, Against Aphobus 1Dem. 28: Demosthenes, Against Aphobus 2Dem. 29: Demosthenes, Against AphobusDem. 3: Demosthenes, Olynthiac 3Dem. 30: Demosthenes, Against OntenorDem. 31: Demosthenes, Against OntenorDem. 32: Demosthenes, Against ZenothemisDem. 33: Demosthenes, Against ApatouriusDem. 34: Demosthenes, Against PhormioDem. 35: Demosthenes, Against LacritusDem. 36: Demosthenes, For PhormioDem. 37: Demosthenes, Against PantaenetusDem. 38: Demosthenes, Against Nausimachus and XenopeithesDem. 39: Demosthenes, Against Boeotus 1Dem. 4: Demosthenes, Philippic 1Dem. 40: Demosthenes, Against B oeotus 2 Dem. 41: Demosthenes, Against SpudiasDem. 42: Demosthenes, Against PhaenippusDem. 43: Demosthenes, Against MacartatusDem. 44: Demosthenes, Against LeocharesDem. 45: Demosthenes, Against Stephanus 1Dem. 46: Demosthenes, Against Stephanus 2Dem. 47: Demosthenes, Against Evergus and MnesibulusDem. 48: Demosthenes, Against OlympiodorusDem. 49: Demosthenes, Against TimotheusDem. 5: Demosthenes, On the PeaceDem. 50: Demosthenes, Against PolyclesDem. 51: Demosthenes, On the Trierarchic CrownDem. 52: Demosthenes, Against CallippusDem. 53: Demosthenes, Against NicostratusDem. 54: Demosthenes, Against CononDem. 55: Demosthenes, Against CalliclesDem. 56: Demosthenes, Against DionysodorusDem. 57: Demosthenes, Against EubulidesDem. 58: Demosthenes, Against TheocrinesDem. 59: Demosthenes, Against NeaeraDem. 6: Demosthenes, Philippic 2Dem. 60: Demosthenes, Funeral SpeechDem. 61: Demosthenes, Erotic EssayDem. 7: Demosthenes, On the HalonnesusDem. 8: Demosthenes, On the ChersoneseDem. 9: Demosthenes, Philippic 3 Dem. Ex.: Demosthenes, ExordiaDem. L.: Demosthenes, LettersDemad. 1: Demades, On the Twelve YearsDin. 1: Dinarchus, Against DemosthenesDin. 2: Dinarchus, Against AristogitonDin. 3: Dinarchus, Against PhiloclesDiod.: Diodorus, Historical LibraryEuc.: Euclid, ElementsEur. Alc.: Euripides, AlcestisEur. Andr.: Euripides, AndromacheEur. Ba.: Euripides, BacchaeEur. Cycl.: Euripides, CyclopsEur. El.: Euripides, ElectraEur. Hec.: Euripides, HecubaEur. Hel.: Euripides, HelenEur. Her.: Euripides, HeraclesEur. Heraclid.: Euripides, HeraclidaeEur. Hipp.: Euripides, HippolytusEur. IA: Euripides, Iphigeneia in AulisEur. IT: Euripides, Iphigeneia in TaurusEur. Ion: Euripides, IonEur. Med.: Euripides, MedeaEur. Orest.: Euripides, OrestesEur. Phoen.: Euripides, Phoenician WomenEur. Rh.: Euripides, RhesusEur. Supp.: Euripides, SuppliantsEur. Tro.: Euripides, Trojan WomenGal. Nat. Fac.: Galen, De naturalibus facultatibusGel.: Gellius, Noctes AtticaeHH 1: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 1 to DionysusHH 10: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 10 to Aphrodite HH 11: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 11 to AthenaHH 12: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 12 to HeraHH 13: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 13 to DemeterHH 14: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 14 to the Mother of the GodsHH 15: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 15 to HeraclesHH 16: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 16 to AsclepiusHH 17: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 17 to the DioscuriHH 18: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 18 to HermesHH 19: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 19 to PanHH 2: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 2 to DemeterHH 20: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 20 to HephaestusHH 21: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 21 to ApolloHH 22: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 22 to PoseidonHH 23: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 23 to ZeusHH 24: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 24 to HestiaHH 25: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 25 to the Muses and ApolloHH 26: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 26 to DionysusHH 27: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 27 to ArtemisHH 28: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 28 to AthenaHH 29: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 29 to HestiaHH 3: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 3 to ApolloHH 30: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 30 to EarthHH 31: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 31 to HeliosHH 32: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 32 to SeleneHH 33: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 33 to the Dioscuri HH 4: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 4 to HermesHH 5: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 5 to AphroditeHH 6: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 6 to AphroditeHH 7: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 7 to DionysusHH 8: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 8 to AresHH 9: Homeric Hymns, Hymn 9 to ArtemisHdt.: Herodotus, HistoriesHes. Sh.: Hesiod, Shield of HeraclesHes. Th.: Hesiod, TheogonyHes. WD: Hesiod, Works and DaysHirt. Gal.: Caesar, Gallic WarHom. Il.: Homer, IliadHom. Od.: Homer, OdysseyHor. Ars: Horace, Ars PoeticaHor. Carm.: Horace, OdesHor. S.: Horace, SatiresHp. Acut.: Hippocrates, De diaeta in morbis acutisHp. Acut. Sp.: Hippocrates, De diaeta acutorumHp. Aer.: Hippocrates, De aere aquis et locisHp. Alim.: Hippocrates, De alimentoHp. Aph.: Hippocrates, AphorismiHp. Art.: Hippocrates, De articulisHp. Epid.: Hippocrates, De morbis popularibusHp. Fist.: Hippocrates, De fistulisHp. Fract.: Hippocrates, De fracturisHp. Haem.: Hippocrates, De haemorrhoidibusHp. Jusj.: Hippocrates, JusjurandumHp. Lex: Hippocrates, LexHp. Mochl.: Hippocrates, Vectiarius Hp. Morb. Sacr.: Hippocrates, De morbo sacro Hp. Off.: Hippocrates, De officina mediciHp. Praec.: Hippocrates, PraeceptionesHp. Prog.: Hippocrates, PrognosticonHp. Ulc.: Hippocrates, De ulceribusHp. VC: Hippocrates, De capitis vulneribusHp. VM: Hippocrates, De prisca medicinaHyp. 1: Hyperides, In Defence of LycophronHyp. 2: Hyperides, Against PhilippidesHyp. 3: Hyperides, Against AthenogenesHyp. 4: Hyperides, In Defence of EuxenippusHyp. 5: Hyperides, Against DemosthenesHyp. 6: Hyperides, Funeral OrationIsaeus 1: Isaeus, CleonymusIsaeus 10: Isaeus, AristarchusIsaeus 11: Isaeus, HagniasIsaeus 12: Isaeus, EuphiletusIsaeus 2: Isaeus, MeneclesIsaeus 3: Isaeus, PyrrhusIsaeus 4: Isaeus, NicostratusIsaeus 5: Isaeus, DicaeogenesIsaeus 6: Isaeus, PhiloctemonIsaeus 7: Isaeus, ApollodorusIsaeus 8: Isaeus, CironIsaeus 9: Isaeus, AstyphilusIsoc. 1: Isocrates, To DemonicusIsoc. 10: Isocrates, HelenIsoc. 11: Isocrates, BusirisIsoc. 12: Isocrates, PanathenaicusIsoc. 13: Isocrates, Against the SophistsIsoc. 14: Isocrates, PlataicusIsoc. 15: Iso crates, Antidosis Isoc. 16: Isocrates, On the team of horsesIsoc. 17: Isocrates, TrapeziticusIsoc. 18: Isocrates, Against CallimachusIsoc. 19: Isocrates, AegineticusIsoc. 2: Isocrates, To NicoclesIsoc. 20: Isocrates, Against LochitesIsoc. 21: Isocrates, Against EuthynusIsoc. 3: Isocrates, Nicocles or the CypriansIsoc. 4: Isocrates, PanegyricusIsoc. 5: Isocrates, To PhilipIsoc. 6: Isocrates, ArchidamusIsoc. 7: Isocrates, AreopagiticusIsoc. 8: Isocrates, On the PeaceIsoc. 9: Isocrates, EvagorasIsoc. L. 1: Isocrates, Ad DionysiumIsoc. L. 2: Isocrates, Ad PhilippumIsoc. L. 3: Isocrates, Ad PhilippumIsoc. L. 4: Isocrates, Ad AntipatrumIsoc. L. 5: Isocrates, Ad AlexandrumIsoc. L. 6: Isocrates, Ad filios JasonisIsoc. L. 7: Isocrates, Ad TimotheumIsoc. L. 8: Isocrates, Ad reges MytilenaeosIsoc. L. 9: Isocrates, Ad ArchidamumJ. AJ: Flavius Josephus, Jewish AntiquitiesJ. Ap.: Flavius Josephus, Against ApionJ. BJ: Flavius Josephus, The Jewish WarJ. Vit.: Flavius Josephus, Life of JosephusLSJ: Henry George Liddel l, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon Liv. 1: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 1Liv. 10: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 10Liv. 11: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 11, SummaryLiv. 12: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 12, SummaryLiv. 13: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 13, SummaryLiv. 14: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 14, SummaryLiv. 15: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 15, SummaryLiv. 16: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 16, SummaryLiv. 17: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 17, SummaryLiv. 18: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 18, SummaryLiv. 19: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 19, SummaryLiv. 2: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 2Liv. 20: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 20, SummaryLiv. 21: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 21Liv. 22: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 22Liv. 23: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 23Liv. 24: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 24Liv. 25: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 25Liv. 26: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 26Liv. 27: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 27Liv. 28: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 28Liv. 29: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 29 Liv. 3: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 3Liv. 30: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 30Liv. 31: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 31Liv. 32: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 32Liv. 33: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 33Liv. 34: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 34Liv. 35: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 35Liv. 36: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 36Liv. 37: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 37Liv. 38: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 38Liv. 39: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 39Liv. 4: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 4Liv. 40: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 40Liv. 41: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 41Liv. 42: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 42Liv. 43: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 43Liv. 44: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 44Liv. 45: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 45Liv. 5: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 5Liv. 6: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 6Liv. 7: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 7Liv. 8: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 8Liv. 9: Livy, The History of Rome, Book 9Liv. Frag.: Livy, The H istory of Rome, Fragments Luc.: Lucan, Civil WarLucr.: Lucretius, De Rerum NaturaLyc. 1: Lycurgus, Against LeocratesLys. 1: Lysias, On the Murder of EratosthenesLys. 10: Lysias, Against Theomnestus 1Lys. 11: Lysias, Against Theomnestus 2Lys. 12: Lysias, Against EratosthenesLys. 13: Lysias, Against AgoratusLys. 14: Lysias, Against Alcibiades 1Lys. 15: Lysias, Against Alcibiades 2Lys. 16: Lysias, For MantitheusLys. 17: Lysias, On the Property of EratonLys. 18: Lysias, On the Confiscation of the Property of the Brother of NiciasLys. 19: Lysias, On the Property of AristophanesLys. 2: Lysias, Funeral OrationLys. 20: Lysias, For PolystratusLys. 21: Lysias, Defence against a Charge of Taking BribesLys. 22: Lysias, Against the Corn DealersLys. 23: Lysias, Against PancleonLys. 24: Lysias, On the Refusal of a PensionLys. 25: Lysias, Defence against a Charge of subverting the DemocracyLys. 26: Lysias, On the Scrutiny of EvandrosLys. 27: Lysias, Against Epicrates and his Fellow EnvoysLys. 28: Lysias, Against ErgoclesLys. 29: Lysias, Against Philocrates Lys. 3: Lysias, Against SimonLys. 30: Lysias, Against NicomachusLys. 31: Lysias, Against PhilonLys. 32: Lysias, Against DiogeitonLys. 33: Lysias, Olympic OrationLys. 34: Lysias, Against the Subversion of the Ancestral Constitution of AthensLys. 4: Lysias, On a Wound by PremeditationLys. 5: Lysias, For CalliasLys. 6: Lysias, Against AndocidesLys. 7: Lysias, On the Olive StumpLys. 8: Lysias, Accusation of CalumnyLys. 9: Lysias, For the SoldierNep. Ag.: Cornelius Nepos, AgesilausNep. Alc.: Cornelius Nepos, AlcibiadesNep. Ar.: Cornelius Nepos, AristidesNep. Att.: Cornelius Nepos, AtticusNep. Ca.: Cornelius Nepos, CatoNep. Cha.: Cornelius Nepos, ChabriasNep. Cim.: Cornelius Nepos, CimonNep. Con.: Cornelius Nepos, CononNep. Dat.: Cornelius Nepos, DatamesNep. Di.: Cornelius Nepos, DionNep. Ep.: Cornelius Nepos, EpaminondasNep. Eum.: Cornelius Nepos, EumenesNep. Ham.: Cornelius Nepos, HamilcarNep. Han.: Cornelius Nepos, HannibalNep. Iph.: Cornelius Nepos, IphicratesNep. Lys.: Cornelius Nepos , Lysander Nep. Milt.: Cornelius Nepos, MiltiadesNep. Paus.: Cornelius Nepos, PausaniasNep. Pel.: Cornelius Nepos, PelopidasNep. Phoc.: Cornelius Nepos, PhocionNep. Reg.: Cornelius Nepos, KingsNep. Them.: Cornelius Nepos, ThemistoclesNep. Thr.: Cornelius Nepos, ThrasybulusNep. Timol.: Cornelius Nepos, TimoleonNep. Timoth.: Cornelius Nepos, TimotheusOv. Am.: Ovid, AmoresOv. Ars: Ovid, Ars AmatoriaOv. Ep.: Ovid, EpistulaeOv. Ep. Sapph.: Ovid, EpistulaeOv. Med.: Ovid, Medicamina Faciei FemineaeOv. Met.: Ovid, MetamorphosesOv. Rem.: Ovid, Remedia AmorisPaus.: Pausanias, Description of GreecePetr.: Petronius, SatyriconPetr. Fr.: Petronius, FragmentsPetr. Poems: Petronius, PoemsPhaed.: Phaedrus, FablesPind. I.: Pindar, IsthmeanPind. N.: Pindar, NemeanPind. O.: Pindar, OlympianPind. P.: Pindar, PythianPl. Am.: Plautus, AmphitruoPl. As.: Plautus, AsinariaPl. Aul.: Plautus, AululariaPl. Bac.: Plautus, BacchidesPl. Capt.: Plautus, CaptiviPl. Cas.: Plautus, CasinaPl. Cist.: Plautus, CistellariaPl. Cur.: P lautus, Curculio Pl. Epid.: Plautus, EpidicusPl. Men.: Plautus, MenaechmiPl. Mer.: Plautus, MercatorPl. Mil.: Plautus, Miles GloriosusPl. Mos.: Plautus, MostellariaPl. Per.: Plautus, PersaPl. Poen.: Plautus, PoenulusPl. Ps.: Plautus, PseudolusPl. Rud.: Plautus, RudensPl. St.: Plautus, StichusPl. Trin.: Plautus, TrinummusPl. Truc.: Plautus, TruculentusPl. Vid.: Plautus, VidulariaPlat. Alc. 1: Plato, Alcibiades 1Plat. Alc. 2: Plato, Alcibiades 2Plat. Apol.: Plato, ApologyPlat. Charm.: Plato, CharmidesPlat. Cleit.: Plato, CleitophonPlat. Crat.: Plato, CratylusPlat. Criti.: Plato, CritiasPlat. Crito: Plato, CritoPlat. Epin.: Plato, EpinomisPlat. Euthyd.: Plato, EuthydemusPlat. Euthyph.: Plato, EuthyphroPlat. Gorg.: Plato, GorgiasPlat. Hipp. Maj.: Plato, Greater HippiasPlat. Hipp. Min.: Plato, Lesser HippiasPlat. Hipparch.: Plato, HipparchusPlat. Ion: Plato, IonPlat. L.: Plato, LettersPlat. Lach.: Plato, LachesPlat. Laws: Plato, LawsPlat. Lovers: Plato, LoversPlat. Lysis: Plato, LysisPlat. Menex.: Plato, Menexenus Plat. Meno: Plato, MenoPlat. Minos: Plato, MinosPlat. Parm.: Plato, ParmenidesPlat. Phaedo: Plato, PhaedoPlat. Phaedrus: Plato, PhaedrusPlat. Phileb.: Plato, PhilebusPlat. Prot.: Plato, ProtagorasPlat. Rep.: Plato, RepublicPlat. Soph.: Plato, SophistPlat. Stat.: Plato, StatesmanPlat. Sym.: Plato, SymposiumPlat. Theaet.: Plato, TheaetetusPlat. Theag.: Plato, TheagesPlat. Tim.: Plato, TimaeusPlb.: Polybius, HistoriesPlin. Ep.: Pliny the Younger, EpistulaePlin. Nat.: Pliny the Elder, Naturalis HistoriaPlut. Aem.: Plutarch, Aemilius PaullusPlut. Ages.: Plutarch, AgesilausPlut. Agis: Plutarch, AgisPlut. Alc.: Plutarch, AlcibiadesPlut. Alex.: Plutarch, AlexanderPlut. Ant.: Plutarch, AntoniusPlut. Arat.: Plutarch, AratusPlut. Arist.: Plutarch, AristeidesPlut. Art.: Plutarch, ArtaxerxesPlut. Brut.: Plutarch, BrutusPlut. CG: Plutarch, Gaius GracchusPlut. Caes.: Plutarch, CaesarPlut. Cam.: Plutarch, CamillusPlut. Cat. Ma.: Plutarch, Marcus CatoPlut. Cat. Mi.: Plutarch, Cato MinorPlut. Cic.: Pl utarch, Cicero Plut. Cim.: Plutarch, CimonPlut. Cleom.: Plutarch, CleomenesPlut. Comp. Ag. Gracch.: Plutarch, Comparison of Agis and Cleomenes and the GracchiPlut. Comp. Ages. Pomp.: Plutarch, Comparison of Agesilaus and PompeyPlut. Comp. Alc. Cor.: Plutarch, Comparison of Alcibiades and CoriolanusPlut. Comp. Aristid. Cat.: Plutarch, Comparison of Aristides with Marcus CatoPlut. Comp. Cim. Luc.: Plutarch, Comparison of Lucullus and CimonPlut. Comp. Dem. Cic.: Plutarch, Comparison of Demosthenes with CiceroPlut. Comp. Demetr. Ant.: Plutarch, Comparison of Demetrius and AntonyPlut. Comp. Dion. Brut.: Plutarch, Comparison of Dion and BrutusPlut. Comp. Eum. Sert.: Plutarch, Comparison of Sertorius and EumenesPlut. Comp. Lyc. Num.: Plutarch, Comparison of Lycurgus and NumaPlut. Comp. Lys. Sull.: Plutarch, Comparison of Lysander and SullaPlut. Comp. Nic. Crass.: Plutarch, Comparison of Nicias and CrassusPlut. Comp. Pel. Marc.: Plutarch, Comparison of Pelopidas and MarcellusPlut. Comp. Per. Fab.: Plutarch , Comparison of Pericles and Fabius Maximus Plut. Comp. Phil. Flam.: Plutarch, Comparison of Philopoemen and TitusPlut. Comp. Sol. Publ.: Plutarch, Comparison of Solon and PublicolaPlut. Comp. Thes. Rom.: Plutarch, Comparison of Theseus and RomulusPlut. Comp. Tim. Aem. : Plutarch, Comparison of Timoleon and AemiliusPlut. Cor.: Plutarch, Caius Marcius CoriolanusPlut. Crass.: Plutarch, CrassusPlut. Dem.: Plutarch, DemosthenesPlut. Demetr.: Plutarch, DemetriusPlut. Dio: Plutarch, DionPlut. Eum.: Plutarch, EumenesPlut. Fab.: Plutarch, Fabius MaximusPlut. Flam.: Plutarch, Titus FlamininusPlut. Galb.: Plutarch, GalbaPlut. Luc.: Plutarch, LucullusPlut. Lyc.: Plutarch, LycurgusPlut. Lys.: Plutarch, LysanderPlut. Mar.: Plutarch, Caius MariusPlut. Marc.: Plutarch, MarcellusPlut. Nic.: Plutarch, NiciasPlut. Num.: Plutarch, NumaPlut. Oth.: Plutarch, OthoPlut. Pel.: Plutarch, PelopidasPlut. Per.: Plutarch, PericlesPlut. Phil.: Plutarch, PhilopoemenPlut. Phoc.: Plutarch, PhocionPlut. Pomp.: Plutarch, PompeyPlut. Publ.: Plutarch, PublicolaPl ut. Pyrrh.: Plutarch, Pyrrhus Plut. Rom.: Plutarch, RomulusPlut. Sert.: Plutarch, SertoriusPlut. Sol.: Plutarch, SolonPlut. Sull.: Plutarch, SullaPlut. TG: Plutarch, Tiberius GracchusPlut. Them.: Plutarch, ThemistoclesPlut. Thes.: Plutarch, TheseusPlut. Tim.: Plutarch, TimoleonProp.: Sextus Propertius, ElegiesPs. Xen. Const. Ath.: Old Oligarch, Constitution of the AtheniansQuint. Inst. 1: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 1Quint. Inst. 10: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 10Quint. Inst. 11: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 11Quint. Inst. 12: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 12Quint. Inst. 2: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 2Quint. Inst. 3: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 3Quint. Inst. 4: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 4Quint. Inst. 5: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 5Quint. Inst. 6: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 6Quint. Inst. 7: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 7Quint. Inst. 8: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 8Quint. Inst. 9: Quintilian, Institutio Or atoria, Book 9 Quint. Inst. Pref.: Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, PrefaceSal. Cat.: Sallust, Catilinae ConiuratioSal. Hist.: Sallust, HistoriaeSal. Jug.: Sallust, Bellum IugurthinumSen. Ag.: Seneca, AgamemnonSen. Apoc.: Seneca, ApocolocyntosisSen. Ben.: Seneca, de BeneficiisSen. Brev. Vit.: Seneca, de Brevitate VitaeSen. Cl.: Seneca, de ClementiaSen. Cons. Helv.: Seneca, de consolatione ad HelviamSen. Cons. Marc.: Seneca, de consolatione ad MarciamSen. Cons. Polyb.: Seneca, de consolatione ad PolybiumSen. Cons. Sap.: Seneca, de ConstantiaSen. Const.: Seneca, de ConstantiaSen. Ep.: Seneca, EpistulaeSen. Her. F.: Seneca, Hercules FurensSen. Her. O.: Seneca, Hercules OetaeusSen. Ira: Seneca, de IraSen. Med.: Seneca, MedeaSen. Oct.: Seneca, OctaviaSen. Oed.: Seneca, OedipusSen. Ot. Sap.: Seneca, de Otio SapientisSen. Phaed.: Seneca, PhaedraSen. Phoen.: Seneca, PhoenissaeSen. Prov.: Seneca, de ProvidentiaSen. Thy.: Seneca, ThyestesSen. Tranq.: Seneca, de Tranquilitate AnimiSen. Tro.: Seneca, TroadesSe n. Vit. Beat.: Seneca, de Vita Beata Serv. A.: Servius, Commentary on the Aeneid of VergilSoph. Aj.: Sophocles, AjaxSoph. Ant.: Sophocles, AntigoneSoph. El.: Sophocles, ElectraSoph. Ich.: Sophocles, IchneutaeSoph. OC: Sophocles, Oedipus at ColonusSoph. OT: Sophocles, Oedipus TyrannusSoph. Phil.: Sophocles, PhiloctetesSoph. Trach.: Sophocles, TrachiniaeStrab.: Strabo, GeographySuet. Aug.: Suetonius, Divus AugustusSuet. Cal.: Suetonius, CaligulaSuet. Cl.: Suetonius, Divus ClaudiusSuet. Dom.: Suetonius, DomitianusSuet. Gal.: Suetonius, GalbaSuet. Jul.: Suetonius, Divus JuliusSuet. Nero: Suetonius, NeroSuet. Otho: Suetonius, OthoSuet. Tib.: Suetonius, TiberiusSuet. Tit.: Suetonius, Divus TitusSuet. Ves.: Suetonius, Divus VespasianusSuet. Vit.: Suetonius, VitelliusSulpicia: Sulpicia, PoemsTac. Ag.: Tacitus, AgricolaTac. Ann.: Tacitus, AnnalesTac. Dial.: Tacitus, DialogusTac. Ger.: Tacitus, GermaniaTac. Hist.: Tacitus, HistoriaeTer. Ad.: Terence, The BrothersTer. An.: Terence, AndriaTer. Eu.: Terence, The EunuchTer. Hau.: Ter ence, The Self-Tormenter Ter. Hec.: Terence, The Mother-in-LawTer. Ph.: Terence, PhormioTheoc.: Theocritus, IdyllsTheoc. Ep.: Theocritus, EpigramsTheoc. Id.: Theocritus, IdyllsThphr. Char.: Theophrastus, CharactersThuc.: Thucydides, HistoriesV. Fl.: C. Valerius Flaccus, ArgonauticaVerg. A.: Vergil, AeneidVerg. Ecl.: Vergil, EcloguesVerg. G.: Vergil, GeorgicsVitr.: Vitruvius, On ArchitectureXen. Ages.: Xenophon, AgesilausXen. Anab.: Xenophon, AnabasisXen. Apol.: Xenophon, ApologyXen. Cav.: Xenophon, On the Cavalry CommanderXen. Const. Lac.: Xenophon, Constitution of the LacedaimoniansXen. Cyrop.: Xenophon, CyropaediaXen. Ec.: Xenophon, EconomicsXen. Hell.: Xenophon, HellenicaXen. Hiero: Xenophon, HieroXen. Horse.: Xenophon, On the Art of HorsemanshipXen. Hunt.: Xenophon, On HuntingXen. Mem.: Xenophon, MemorabiliaXen. Sym.: Xenophon, SymposiumXen. Ways: Xenophon, Ways and Means Source: Perseus.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

History of the Symphony Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

History of the Symphony - Essay Example The origins of symphony date way back to the early 19th century, continuing through the 20th century, and on to the 21st century. Haydn was one of the foremost composers of the symphony in the 1800’s. Mozart expanded on the symphony by composing short tone poems. Sonata form was popular in this period. Beethoven made similar pieces to Mozart—however, Beethoven was much more orderly, fond of expanded form, and liked to write symphony pieces that were more reserved, in a sense. Also in the late 1820’s, Robert Schumann attempted his first symphony, entitled â€Å"Spring.† Berlioz was fond of using expanded instrumentation and programmatic symphony. Mahler used altered symphonic form. Strauss later became a conductor. Aaron Copland was well-known for his symphonies as well, ushering in the 20th century—championing serialism, or twelve-tone music. Schoenberg ushered in the 21st century of American symphony. â€Å"[Schoenberg’s] early works, which were reminiscent of Johannes Brahms and Richard Strauss, are still disliked because they were written by his infamous hand. His twelve-tone technique is the first attempts at atonality during his era and would be never developed and explored by later composers...† William Schuman wrote eight symphonies.